J Afr Earth Sci 33:211–225, Castro A (2004) The source of granites: inferences from the Lewisian complex. minerals like the pyroxenes from the different members of the charnockite group in the elucidation of their petrogenesis. The Neoproterozoic charnockite–granite association of Okpella intrudes metasedimentary and migmatite-gneiss complex rocks in the eastern Igarra Schist Belt, southwestern Nigeria. Field, petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical, and fluid inclusion evidence indicates that, compared with the H 2 O-rich granite, the magma responsible for the charnockite had a preponderance of CO 2 over H 2 O, which lowered the H 2 O activity in the melt, stabilizing ortho- and clinopyroxene. v. er area from Hidaka Metamorphic Belt, northern Japan. J Afr Earth Sci 13(3–4):387–395, Rajesh HM (2004) The igneous charnockite – high-K alkali-calcic I-type granite – incipient charnockite association in Trivandrum Block, southern India. Subscription will auto renew annually. Ogunyele, A.C., Obaje, S.O., Akingboye, A.S. et al. The first stage is marked by the formation of an over-thickened oceanic-arc. West Gondwana: pre-Cenozoic correlations across the South Atlantic region. Lecture notes in Earth Sciences 120. Mineral Soc Amer Rev Mineral 21:169–200, McLennan SM, Bock B, Hemming SR, Hurowitz JA, Steven ML, McDaniel DK (2003) The roles of provenance and sedimentary processes in the geochemistry of sedimentary rocks. Precambrian Res 9:303e310, McLelland JM, Selleck BW, Hamilton MA, Bickford ME (2010) Late- to post-tectonic setting of some major Proterozoic anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) suite. Scottish J Geol 40(1):49–65, Chacko T, Kumar GRR, Meen JK, Rogers JJW (1992) Geochemistry of high-grade supracrustal rocks from the Kerala Khondalite Belt and adjacent massif charnockites. https://doi.org/10.1080/00206814.2013.875489, Gillespie MR, Styles MT (1999) Rock classification scheme volume 1: classification of igneous rocks. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-007-0211-y, Rajesh HM (2008) Petrogenesis of two granites from the Nilgiri and Madurai blocks, southwestern India: implications for charnockite–calc-alkaline granite and charnockite–alkali (A-type) granite link in high-grade terrains. British Geological Survey Research Report, 2nd edn. Members of the TC follow sodic (characterized by decreasing CaO/Na2O), whereas those of the GC and AC follow calc-alkaline trends of differentiation. https://doi.org/10.1080/10106049.2020.1753822, Fedo CM, Nesbitt HW, Young GM (1995) Unraveling the effects of potassium metasomatism in sedimentary rocks and paleosols, with implications for paleoweathering conditions and provenance. A comparative study was performed on the petrography, geochemistry and geochronology of charnockite and granulite in the Xiwulanbulang (XWLBL) area, northern margin of the North China Craton, NW China. Chem Geol 124:233–252, Danbatta UA (2008) A review of the evolution and tectonic framework of the schist belts of Western Nigeria, West Africa. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2018.04.008, Cox R, Lowe DR, Cullers RL (1995) The influence of sediment recycling and basement composition on evolution of mudrock chemistry in the southwestern United States. Department of Earth Sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria, Abimbola Chris Ogunyele, Solomon Omale Obaje, Adedibu Sunny Akingboye, Ayotunde Oluwadamilare Babalola & Abiodun Tobiloba Olufunmilayo, Department of Chemical Sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria, Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, You can also search for this author in Ponnani College, Kerala–679 586, India. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Precambrian Res 162:180–197, Rajesh HM, Santosh M (2012) Charnockites and charnockites (editorial). In order to unravel the complex processes involved in the formation and Precambrian Res 55:469–489, Chappell BW, White AJR (2001) Two contrasting granite types: 25 years later. Canadian Mineral 48(4):729–750. Geological Association of Canada, pp 39–51, Nesbitt HW, Young G (1982) Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. J Afr Earth Sci 109:131–142. Sweden. Geological Survey of Nigeria, Kaduna, pp 77–82, Fagbohun BJ, Omitogun AA, Bamisaiye OA, Ayoola FJ (2020) Remote detection and interpretation of structural style of the Zuru Schist Belt, Northwest Nigeria. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Ocan OO (1990) The petrology of rocks around Idanre area, southwestern Nigeria. Lithos 200:22–34. https://doi.org/10.3749/canmin.48.4.729, McLennan SM (1989) Rare earth elements in sedimentary rocks: influence of provenance and sedimentary processes. Arab J Geosci 13, 780 (2020). Towards the fulfilment of this objective, some of the optical properties of pyroxenes from different types Charnockite and related neosome development in the Eastern Ghats, Orissa, India: petrographic evidence - Volume 75 Issue 3 - Adrian F. Park, B. Recommendations of the IUGS sub-commission on the systematics of igneous rocks. Petrography is a branch of petrology that focuses on detailed descriptions of rocks.Someone who studies petrography is called a petrographer.The mineral content and the textural relationships within the rock are described in detail. The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) of the southern India encompasses volumetrically significant magmatic components. The GC and AC suites, on the other hand, resemble post-Archaean arc-related granites. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-05785-x, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-05785-x, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Petrogenesis of charnockites is related to intra-crustal melting processes. Geol Rundsch 70(3):897–909, Odeyemi IB (1988) Lithostratigraphy and structural relationships of the Upper Precambrian metasediments in Igarra area, southwestern Nigeria. Geological Survey of Nigeria, Kaduna, pp 111–125, Odeyemi IB, Rahaman MA (1992) Petrology of a composite syenite dyke in Igarra, southwestern Nigeria. Geol 23:921–924. https://doi.org/10.1038/299715a0, Obaje NG (2009) Geology and mineral resources of Nigeria. Geol 21:825–828, Rudnick RL, Gao S (2003) Composition of the continental crust. British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Girei MB, Najime T, Ogunleye PO (2019) Geochemical characteristics and origin of the Neoproterozoic high-K calc-alkaline granitoids in the northern part of Mandara hills, northeastern Nigeria. All these magmatic events are fairly well correlated with the major episodes of crustal growth observed in the once contiguous continental fragments (Sri Lanka and Madagascar) and worldwide events (2.7, 1.9, and 1.2 Ga) implying similar episodic nature in the lower crustal evolution of the KKB. Akin Jinad and Co., Ibadan, pp 29–44, Dada SS (2008) Proterozoic evolution of the Nigeria–Borborema Province. The petrography showed the porphyritic granite having plagioclase, quartz, biotite, hornblende, mymerkite as major minerals and apatite as accessory (Fig.6). Precambrian Res 62:83e101, Tubosun IA, Lancelot JR, Rahaman MA, Ocan OO (1984) U-Pb Pan-African ages of two charnockite-granite association from southwestern Nigeria. Geosci Frontiers 3(6):789–800. The charnockitic rocks contain plagioclase, hypersthene, biotite, quartz, hornblende, muscovite and orthoclase as major In: Lentz DR (ed.) Earth Sci Malaysia 2(1):29–36. In: Oluyide PO, Mbonu WC, Ogezi AEO, Egbuniwe IG, Ajibade AC, Umeji AC (eds) Precambrian geology of Nigeria. The petrography of the charnockite section on the west side of the mountain is given in Table 1. Geochemistry of sediments and sedimentary rocks/evolutionary considerations to mineral deposit-forming environments. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB004223, Maniar PD, Piccoli PM (1989) Tectonic discrimination of granitoids. charnockite from Jiuzhou in South China (Zhao et al. Cambridge University Press, Lyubetskaya T, Korenaga J (2007) Chemical composition of Earth’s primitive mantle and its variance: 1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2015.05.012, Okunlola OA, Okoroafor RE (2009) Geochemical and petrogenetic features of schistose rocks of the Okemesi fold belt, Southwestern Nigeria. Geol Soc Amer Bull 101:635–643, Martignole J (1979) Charnockite genesis and the Proterozoic crust. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 294:121–136. Glob J Geol Sci 12(1):21–30. Abimbola Chris Ogunyele. Granites are felsic rocks that usually contain no or very little pyroxene. https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1999.168.01.05, Patiño Douce AE (2005) Vapor-absent melting of tonalite at 15–32 kbar. J Afr Earth Sci 16(4):405–412, Dada SS, Briqueu L, Harms U, Lancelot JR, Matheis G (1995) Charnockitic and monzonitic Pan-African series from northcentral Nigeria: trace-element and Nd, Sr, Pb isotope constraints on their petrogenesis. Precambrian Res 334:105478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2019.105478, Rahaman MA (1976) Review of the Basement Geology of southwestern Nigeria. Centenary Societe Geologique de Belgique, Liege, pp 349–360, Streckeisen AL (1976) To each plutonic rock its proper name. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, Odeyemi IB (1981) A review of the orogenic events in the Basement Complex of Nigeria, West Africa. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 168:55–75. In contrast to the well-known phenomena of arrested charnockitization, the geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of these ortho-granulite suites remain poorly studied, leaving geodynamic models envisaged for the KKB highly conjectural. Inter J Environ Earth Sci 4(11):544–548, Adetunji A, Olarewaju VO, Ocan OO, Ganev VY, Macheva L (2016) Geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology of the pegmatites in Ede area, southwestern Nigeria: a newly discovered oldest Pan African rock in southwestern Nigeria. J Petrology 54(1):3–40. In: Oluyide PO, Mbonu WC, Ogezi AEO, Egbuniwe IG, Ajibade AC, Umeji AC (eds) Precambrian geology of Nigeria. We present a comparative study of the petrography, geochemistry, and geochronology of charnockite and intermediate–basic granulite in the Jining area along the northern margin of the North China Craton. The mafic rocks are pyribolite and less common pyriclasite. The authors profoundly appreciate the insightful comments of Felipe Grandjean da Costa which helped to clarify and strengthen the interpretations in this paper. ), Micas. Precambrian Res 21:55–79, Ugwuonah EN, Tsunogae T, Obiora SC (2017) Metamorphic P–T evolution of garnet-staurolite-biotite pelitic schist and amphibolite from Keffi, north-central Nigeria: Geothermobarometry, mineral equilibrium modeling and P-T path. Present Adress: Dept. Contrib Miner Petrol 88:188–195, Turner DC (1983) Upper Proterozoic schist belts in the Nigerian sector of the Pan-African province of West Africa. Mat Geoenv 66(3):173–184. Detailed petrography was carried out using Petrographic Microscopes, both at the Department of Geology, Obafemi Awolowo University and Department of Geology, Rhodes University, South Africa. J Min Geol 39:1–9, Oluyide PO (1988) Structural trends in the Nigerian basement. J Afr Earth Sci 15:177–190. Glob J Geol Sci 1(2):113–127, Olobaniyi SB, Annor AE (2003) Petrology and age implication of ultramafic schist in the Isanlu area of the Isanlu-Egbe Schist Belt, southwestern Nigeria. Lithos 45:225–279, Ferré EC, Gleizes G, Caby R (2002) Obliquely convergent tectonics and granite emplacement in the Trans-Saharan belt of Eastern Nigeria: a synthesis. Two sets of conjugate shear system are observed. https://doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v23i2.7, Kretz R (1983) Symbols for rock-forming minerals. Precambrian Res 34:269–289, Ekwueme BN (2003a) Geochemistry of crystalline basement rocks, SW Ugep, Nigeria. Khondalite is found in the Eastern Ghats between Vijayawada and Cuttack in India. Field study: T he area ranges about 1.5 sq uare kilometres used . W e hope. Nature 327:503–506, Frost BR, Barnes CG, Collins WJ, Arculus RJ, Ellis DJ, Frost CD (2001) A geochemical classification for granitic rocks. Comparative the petrography, geochemistry and geochronology data of Magnesian–charnockite indicate that the ratios of mafic pellites and basalts involved in anatectic melting are different by the upwelling of mantle magma, also resulting in the Eu anormals characteristics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-019-1261-2. Olatunde Adegbuyi, Felipe Holanda Santos and Oladotun Afolabi Oluwajana are also acknowledged for their comments on the initial drafts of this paper. The average modal composition is 35% 31% 19% 4% 12% respectively. Four-stage episodic crustal evolution model is proposed for the Kerala Khondalite belt. Precambrian Res 114:199–219, Fitches WR, Ajibade AC, Egbuniwe IG, Holt RW, Wright JB (1985) Late Proterozoic schist belts and plutonism in NW Nigeria. J Afr Earth Sci 6(5):655–664, Yakymchuk C (2019) On granites. Int J Geosci 3:1065–1073. Episodes 43(1):203–230, Laurent O, Martin H, Moyen JF, Doucelance R (2014) The diversity and evolution of late-Archean granitoids: evidence for the onset of “modern-style” plate tectonics between 3.0 and 2.5 Ga. Lithos 205:208–235, Le Maitre RW (2002) Igneous rocks: a classification and glossary of terms. J Geol Soc Lond 153:719–728, Ferré EC, Caby R, Peucat JJ, Capdevila R, Monie P (1998) Pan-African, post-collisional, ferro-potassic granite and quartz-monzonite plutons of eastern Nigeria. Dash In: Oluyide PO, Mbonu WC, Ogezi AEO, Egbuniwe IG, Ajibade AC, Umeji AC (eds) Precambrian geology of Nigeria. Petrografia e Geoquímica do Complexo Charnockítico de Aimorés: Um Exemplo de Plutonismo Pós-orogênico do Cinturão Araçuaí/Ribeira =Petrography and Geochemistry of the Aimorés Charnockitic Complex: An Example of Post-orogenic Plutonism of the Araçuaí/Ribeira Belt Method and results. but the term khondalite is also used to describe other rocks of similar composition found elsewhere in India as well as in Burma, Sri Lanka and the Inner Mongolia region of China.. The second stage corresponds to the production of TTG magmas by melting of the over-thickened oceanic-arc crust, subsequent to basaltic underplating during Palaeoproterozoic (ca. that may contain orthopyroxene plus quartz. https://doi.org/10.4236/ijg.2012.35107, Okonkwo CT, Ganev VY (2015) Geochemistry and geochronology of orthogneisses in Bode Saadu area, southwestern Nigeria and their implications for the Palaeoproterozoic evolution of the area. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions, Adegbuyi O, Ogunyele AC, Odindu M, Erinfolami TG (2017) Geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of basement rocks in Idoani area, Ondo State, southwestern Nigeria. In: Belliere J, Duchesne JC (eds) Geologie des domaines cristallins. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 32(6):573–601, Sisson TW, Ratajeski K, Hankins WB, Glazner AF (2005) Voluminous granitic magmas from common basaltic sources. African Geology, Ibadan, pp 45–53, Cordani UG, Pimentel MM, Ganade de Araújo CE, Basei MAS, Fuck RA, Girardi VAV (2013) Was there an Ediacaran Clymene Ocean in Central South America? The garnet-biotite schist, calc-silicate gneiss and quartzite in the area are low–medium grade metasedimentary rocks. In this study, we report a new occurrence of incipient charnockite from Mavadi in the TGB and discuss the petrogenesis of granulite formation in an arrested stage on the basis of petrography, geothermobarometry, and mineral equilibrium modeling. Rocks of the charnockite series (Holland,1900) or the charnockite- anorthosite suite of rocks (Goldschmidt,1916) are widespread in Precambrian terranes.Often the entire range of compositions from granitic to anorthositic varieties occurs in close proximity. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59(14):2919–2940, Dada SS (1998) Crust-forming ages and Proterozoic crustal evolution in Nigeria: a reappraisal of current interpretations. Geochemical features of the GC, such as high Rb/Sr (average 1.80) and Ba/Sr ratios (average values > 6), are considered as evidence for crustal reworking in their genesis, suggesting remelting of a quartzo-feldspathic (TTG) source, within the plagioclase stability fields. The rock is porphyritic in texture, with phenocrysts of K-feldspar and plagioclase in matrix of biotite, amphibole and quartz. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. In der Petrologie gab es bis in die jüngste Zeit die Auffassung, dass die Charnockite zu den Graniten gehören, also magmatischen Ursprungs sind. In: Kogbe CA (ed) Geology of Nigeria. In this paper, we try to bridge this gap with detailed results on orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites spread over the entire KKB and propose a new petrogenetic and crustal evolution model. Comparative the petrography, geochemistry and geochronology data of Magnesian–charnockite indicate that the ratios of mafic pellites and basalts involved in anatetic melting are different by the upwelling of mantle magma, also resulting in the Eu anormals characteristics. Geocarto Inter:1–21. Mat Geoenv 56(2):148–162, Olarewaju VO (1987) Charnockite–granite association in SW Nigeria: rapakivi granite type and charnockitic plutonism in Nigeria? Geological Survey of Nigeria, Kaduna, pp 45–54, Ajibade AC, Woakes M, Rahaman MA (1987) Proterozoic crustal development in the Pan-African regime of Nigeria. Geol Soc Amer Spec Paper 230:145–158, Caby R, Boessé JM (2001) Pan-African nappe system in Southwest Nigeria: the Ife-Ilesha schist belt. Inter J Emerging Trends Eng Dev 2(2):35–46, Jimoh OA, Ariffin KS, Hussin HB, Habeeb AA (2016) Characterization and assessment of Okpella metacarbonate deposit in Nigeria. J Min Geol 28(2):255–263, Ogunyele AC, Obaje SO, Akingboye AS (2018) Lithostructural relationships and petrogenetic affinities of the Basement Complex rocks around Okpella, southwestern Nigeria. Contrib Miner Petrol 148:635–661, Streckeisen AL (1974) How should charnockitic rocks be named? Carbonates Evap 32:513–524. Kanimozhi and Selvaraj , IJCRD 2017,Vol :5 (2) 22- 29 23 dykes (Proterozoic). Gondwana Res 23:701–714. Geological Survey of Nigeria, Kaduna, pp 93–102, Omitogun AA, Caby R, Debat P (1991) Le métamorphism Pan-African de la partie centrale de la zone mobile du Nigéria. Precambrian Res 87:65–74, Dada SS (2006) Proterozoic evolution of Nigeria. Geological Association of Canada, pp 184–190, Mendes JC, De Campos CMP (2012) Norite and charnockites from the Venda Nova Pluton, SE Brazil: intensive parameters and some petrogenetic constraints. Sometimes the patches and foliations of the host https://doi.org/10.2478/rmzmag-2019-0036, Okeke PO, Meju MA (1985) Chemical evidence for the sedimentary origin of Igarra supracrustal rocks, S.W. The zircon crystallization ages (1.89 and 1.85 Ga) of the GC indicate arc accretion occurred during the Palaeoproterozoic. Data on field, petrography, geoc hemistry and mineralization of these granitoids cumulative ly demonstrate that they are . Charnockite is a granofels that contains orthopyroxene, quartz, and feldspar.Charnockite is frequently described as an orthopyroxene granite. In: Castro , Fernandez C, Virgneresse JL (eds) Understanding granites: integrating new and classical techniques. https://doi.org/10.26480/esmy.01.2018.29.36, Ogunyele AC, Oluwajana OA, Ehinola IQ, Ameh BE, Salaudeen TA (2019) Petrochemistry and petrogenesis of the Precambrian Basement Complex rocks around Akungba-Akoko, southwestern Nigeria. Nature 299:715–717. of P.G. Charnockites sensu lato (charnockite-enderbite series) are lower crustal felsic rocks typically characterised by the presence of anhydrous minerals including orthopyroxene and garnet. Published data on the metasedimentary rocks and Pan-African granitoids in different sectors of the belt were also compiled for detailed interpretations. Am J Sci 313:517–539, Costa FG, Klein EL, Lafon JM, Milhomem Neto JM, Galarza MA, Rodrigues JB, Naleto JLC, Corrêa Lima RG (2018) Geochemistry and U–Pb–Hf zircon data for plutonic rocks of the Troia Massif, Borborema Province, NE Brazil: evidence for reworking of Archean and juvenile Paleoproterozoic crust during Rhyacian accretionary and collisional tectonics. The granites and charnockites are coeval and were presumably emplaced during the post-collisional stages of the Pan-African Orogeny. 2.1 Ga). In: Pankhurst RJ, Trouw RAJ, Brito Neves BB, De Wit MJ (eds.) Key words : charnockite, enderbite, petrography, modal analysis, EGGB, India Introduction The continental growth process by the accretion of crustal material - their chemical, magmatic and tectonic controls can best be understood through an extended characterization of granulites. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2012.05.009, Nesbitt HW (2003) Petrogenesis of siliciclastic sediments and sedimentary rocks. that, with the availability recent publications related to the . Based on geochemical characteristics, the orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites (charnockites sensu lato) of KKB are classified into (1) tonalitic (TC), (2) granitic (GC), and (3) augen (AC) suites. e in Niikappu Ri. cursory attention is given to charnockite petrography. J Geophys Res 112:B03211. The granites probably originated from mixed melts derived from lower- to mid-crustal tonalites-trondhjemites-granodiorites and/or subducted metagreywackes and mantle-derived magmas (probably the charnockitic melt and/or its progenitor). The use of these techniques has become very important in the search for hydrocarbon reservoirs. The chemical composition of the most abundant minerals is in table 1. Glob J Geol Sci 1(2):1–7, Ekwueme BN (2003b) The Precambrian geology and evolution of the southeastern Nigerian Basement Complex. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2012.05.005, Bhatia MR, Crook KAW (1986) Trace element characteristics of greywackes and tectonic setting discrimination of sedimentary basins. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2016.07.009. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. J Geol 109:399–406, Kumar S, Gupta S, Sensarma S, Bhutani R (2020) Proterozoic felsic and mafic magmatism in India: implications for crustal evolution through crust-mantle interactions. https://doi.org/10.1144/SP294.7, Dada SS, Lancelot JR, Briqueu L (1989) Age and origin of the annular charnockitic complex at Toro, Northern Nigeria: U-Pb and Rb-Sr evidence. Inter Geol Rev 59:1861–1884. (a) Very coarse-grained charnockitic orthogneiss with large orthopyroxene crystals, partially altered to amphibole, with plagioclase and minor quartz. Significant negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.18–0.91; average 0.50) and low Sr (65–690 ppm) are also noted in the GC. J Petrol 25:956–983, Peng P, Qin Z, Sun F, Zhou X, Guo J, Zhai M, Ernst RE (2019) Nature of charnockite and Closepet granite in thr Dharwar Craton: implications for the architecture of the Archean crust. Inter J Adv Geosci 5(2):102–108. The charnockites and granites of Okpella show primary magmatic mineralogy and geochemical characteristics. University of Calabar Press, Ekwueme BN, Kalsbeek F (2014) U-Pb geochronology of metasedimentary schists in Akwanga area of northcentral Nigeria and its implications for the evolution of the Nigerian Basement Complex. J Geol Soc India 94:9–22. Composition. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2014.04.006, Grant NK (1970) Geochronology of Precambrian basement rocks from Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. In: Bailey SW (ed. J Mining Geol 22:97–104, Okeke PO, Akinnagbe T, Anike OL (1988) Major and minor element evaluation of the Igarra granite. with the petrogenetic model of incipient charnockite related to the lowering of water activity and stabilization of orthopyroxene through breakdown of biotite by dehydration caused by the infiltration of CO 2-rich fluid from external sources. Elsevier-Pergamon, Oxford, pp 1–64, Santos FH, Amaral WS, Uchôa Filho EC, Martins DT (2017) Detrital zircon U–Pb ages and whole-rock geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic Paulistana and Santa Filomena complexes, Borborema Province, northeastern Brazil: implications for source area composition, provenance, and tectonic setting. https://doi.org/10.1080/00206814.2019.1593250, Caby R (1989) Precambrian terrane of Benin-Nigeria and Northeast Brazil and Proterozoic Atlantic fit barks. J Afr Earth Sci 9(2):227–234, Dada SS, Tubosun IA, Lancelot JR, Lar AU (1993) Late Archaean U-Pb age for the reactivated basement of northeastern Nigeria. The Neoproterozoic charnockite-granite association of Okpella intrudes metasedimentary and migmatite-gneiss complex rocks in the eastern Igarra Schist Belt, southwestern Nigeria. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. The charnockite patches that occur within leptynite host, in and around Jenapore, northern sec- tor of the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, are disposed in a linear fashion and generally have sharp lithological contact with the host leptynite. The GC displays ferroan nature (average Mg# = 22), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 34.84), high contents of Y (5–128 ppm; average 68), and low Sr/Y (1–98) ratios. Lithos 12:1–11, Ibe CU, Obiora SC (2019) Geochemical characterization of granitoids in Katchuan Irruan area: further evidence for peraluminous and shoshonitic compositions and post-collisional setting of granitic rocks in the Precambrian Basement Complex of Nigeria. Contrib Mineral Petrol 154:91–110, Woakes M, Rahaman MA, Ajibade AC (1987) Some metallogenetic features of the Nigerian Basement. Akin Jinad & Co, Ibadan, pp 45–70, Olobaniyi SO (2003) Geochemistry of semi-pelitic schist of Isanlu area, Southwestern Nigeria: implication for the geodynamic evolution of the Egbe–Isanlu schist belt. In: Oshin O (ed) The basement complex of Nigeria and its mineral resources (a tribute to prof MAO Rahaman). Nigeria. Khondalite is quartz–manganese-rich garnet–rhodonite schist. In: Lentz DR (ed.) The fourth stage of crustal evolution is correlated with the Mesoproterozoic (~ 1.5 Ga) emplacement of megacrystic K-feldspar granites (protoliths to the AC and augen gneisses). Rev Mineral 13:201–297, Hubbard FH (1968) The association Charnockite–Older Granite in SW Nigeria. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie de Science, Paris 313(2):1417–1423, Oyawale AA, Ocan OO (2020) Migmatization process and the nature of transition from amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism in Ikare area Southwestern Nigeria. The study highlights petrography, modal based geochemistry, shears and joints of the area. J Mining Geol 24:101–106, Okonkwo CT, Ganev VY (2012) U-Pb geochronology of the Jebba granitic gneiss and its implications for the Paleoproterozoic evolution of Jebba area, southwestern Nigeria. Petrography and geochemistry studies provide information whether to undertake an in-depth appraisal or not. Inzwischen wurde nachgewiesen, dass zumindest ein Teil der Charnockite auf metamorphe Prozesse zurückzuführen sind. 1992, 2004). It may also contain sillimanite and graphite. - Acta Geochim 38:734–752. Among these, orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites, popularly known as charnockites in Indian context, constitute an important lithology. Afr Geosci Rev 15(2):145–158, Ekwueme BN (1987) Structural orientations and Precambrian deformational episodes of Uwet area Oban massif, SE Nigeria. The TC is also characterized by positive to slightly negative europium anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.7 to 1.67). The mineralogy and geochemistry of the charnockites suggest that the charnockitic melt was derived from mafic lower continental crust through partial melting and assimilation-fractionation processes. We also propose a possible alternative process to form charnockite from Grt-Bt gneiss through Geological Survey of Nigeria, Kaduna, pp 11–43, Rahaman MA, Ajayi TR, Oshin IO, Asubiojo FOI (1988) Trace element geochemistry and tectonic setting of Ile-Ife schist belt. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2015.12.006, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2018.01.015, https://doi.org/10.1080/00206814.2019.1593250, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2018.04.008, https://doi.org/10.1080/10106049.2020.1753822, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<0921:UTEOPM>2.3.CO;2, https://doi.org/10.1080/00206814.2013.875489, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11631-019-00365-7, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2014.04.006, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11631-019-00318-0, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13146-016-0308-3, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2012.05.009, https://doi.org/10.26480/esmy.01.2018.29.36, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2015.05.012, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1999.168.01.05, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2019.105478, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-007-0211-y, https://doi.org/10.1080/00206814.2017.1300074, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-019-1261-2, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-05785-x.