Tp – Permanent freshwater marshes/pools; ponds (below 8 ha), marshes and swamps on inorganic soils; with emergent vegetation water-logged for at least most of the growing season. D – Rocky marine shores; includes rocky offshore islands, sea cliffs. To avoid these disadvantages, attempts have been made to develop a classification system that would take into consideration the various wetland types all over the world. Zk(c) – Karst and other subterranean hydrological systems, human-made, 1. The water that flows out of the swamp is thus purified. There are many different kinds of marshes, ranging from the prairie potholes to the Everglades, coastal to inland, freshwater to saltwater. Rain and flooding cause the water level to change, but in any case, a swamp remains wet. Swamps aren’t really 100% water, but they aren’t 100% land either. E – Sand, shingle or pebble shores; includes sand bars, spits and sandy islets; includes dune systems and humid dune slacks. Given the above-mentioned benefits obtained from swamps, it becomes clear that such ecosystems need to be conserved for the well-being of all. Fig. Researchers benefit from the whole functioning of a Wetland as an ecosystem. Fish and Wildlife Service, terrestrial ecosystems must have 3 characteristics to be considered a wetland: water at or near the surface for a period of time each year Bogs and fens often occur side by side (FORESTED WETLANDS: Functions, Benefits and the Use of Best Management Practices). Swamps also protect coastal areas from storm surges that can wash away fragile coastline. Wetlands moderate the effects of flooding and help purify water. 2 – Ponds; includes farm ponds, stock ponds, small tanks; (generally below 8 ha). They are generally distinguished for their stagnant and slow-moving waters, usually linked to adjacent rivers and lakes. 2. It can be regarded as an intermediate area between land and water. The two major types of organic soil wetlands are, therefore, distinguished by their hydrological regime (see Fig. 9): bogs receive water mainly from precipitation, while fens are supplied with water mostly from surface and groundwater sources: Figure 9 – Main differences between a bog and a fen (source – FORESTED WETLANDS: Functions, Benefits and the Use of Best Management Practices). Water polluted with domestic waste, industrial effluents, and sewage may also enter the swamps. Abiotic characteristics. Often there is no strict borderline between the two wetland types but a smooth transition from one type to the other, as is the case of the Augstumal mire/peatland complex in Lithuania (see Figure 10): Unfortunately, the "traditional terminology" has the significant disadvantage of being based on the traditional concept of a wetland (see part on what wetlands are). Thus, swamps were given little importance until science explained the usefulness of these wetlands. K – Coastal freshwater lagoons; includes freshwater delta lagoons. There are two major types of peatlands – bogs and fens, both of which occur in similar climatic and geographic regions. 2. 8 – Wastewater treatment areas; sewage farms, settling ponds, oxidation basins, etc. General Characteristics of Wetlands. Bog – a type of wetland ecosystem characterized by wet, spongy, poorly drained peaty soil, dominated by the growth of bog mosses. Some examples of floodplain wetlands are seasonally inundated grassland (including natural wet meadows), shrublands, woodlands and forests. They were regarded as the breeding grounds of a variety of pests including mosquitos that can spread epidemics. Wetlands have a number of beneficial effects on the environment. The trees present in these swamps act as a barrier to the strong winds and waves. Regarding the characteristics possessed by a water ecosystem, here are the characteristics of the water ecosystem: The environment is dominated by waters – Water ecosystems are ecosystems whose habitat is dominated by water.
2020 swamp ecosystem characteristics