anthropology, economics, human geography, political science, sociology) and associated analytics for understanding the diverse ways that humans value and interact with non-human nature. Molecular and phylogenetic techniques were utilized to compare mycorrhizal fungal diversity between forest types and to identify mycorrhizal fungal associates of the plant species occurring in clearcuts. The Simard Lab is run by Suzanne Simard. Students are expected to This finding points towards belowground interactions as a medium for balancing species inequalities and, by extension, of maintaining ecosystem diversity and stability. Her research is motivated by her desire for protecting our fundamental right to a clean and healthy environment. This led me to conclude that: 1) light availability had the largest influence on juvenile tree growth; 2) Delta-13C was the second most important growth predictor; 3) tree size also improved growth predictions; 4) soil moisture was a weak growth predictor; 5) foliar N levels did not improve growth predictions; and 6) density, as expressed as stems/ha, improved growth predictions negligibly. Both a greenhouse and field experiments were performed to corroborate results. Suzanne Simard, PhD, RPF, is Professor of Forest Ecology, Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, Canada. literature. Suzanne Simard University of British Columbia. My objectives were (1) to determine the effects of regional climate (represented by a drought index) on EM network facilitation of Douglas-fir seedling establishment; (2) to separate genotypic effects from climatic effects; (3) to compare the importance of EM networks to 3-year-old outplanted nursery seedlings versus 1st year seedlings germinated in the field; (4) to parse the competitive from facilitative effects of residual Douglas-fir trees on small seedlings; and (5) to determine the interaction between soil water and [CO₂], in their effects on EM network-facilitated seedling establishment and C-transfer between different sized Douglas-fir seedlings. Understanding mixed forest dynamics, as well as their quickly evolving mycorrhizal symbionts, could reveal key management strategies for adapting to climate change. I show that warming leads to a significant increase of fungi with proteolytic capacity, particularly Cortinarius spp., and a reduction of fungi with high affinities for labile N, especially Russula spp. Cited by. UBC scientist Suzanne Simard researches how the oldest trees in forests nurture, communicate and protect younger seedlings. I haven't rated many prof's but … The University of British Columbia Vancouver campus. Welcome to the Simard Lab! "A forest is much more than what you see," says ecologist Suzanne Simard. This is a small sample of students and/or alumni that have been supervised by this researcher. Sort. Last updated: October 1, 2020 @12:30 pm Professor and Forest Renewal BC Chair in Applied Conservation Biology. Using seedlings with and without access to a mycorrhizal network (restricted or permitted via mesh pore size), stable isotope probing was used to track carbon and nitrogen in the system. Data was analyzed using linear mixed effects models. Soil N indices incorporating dissolved inorganic N and organic N were useful in characterizing differences in N supply among contrasting sites. Increased disturbance severity, either by wildfire or clearcutting, led to a uniform ectomycorrhizal community dominated by Wilcoxina sp. Title. I also found that at the highest density class, there were no differences in juvenile radial growth between the two neighbor strata. Suzanne Simard is a world-leading scientist who has developed a strong, well-recognized research program at UBC. Suzanne Simard est professeure d'écologie forestière et enseigne à l'Université de la Colombie-Britannique.. Elle est biologiste et a testé des théories sur la manière dont les arbres communiquent entre eux. By changing community composition at a consistent density, we observed cooperative behaviours in kin seedlings grown with only other kin and unique responses when kin and strangers were grown together in a group suggesting integration of multiple cues. In the field, survivorship was greater among non-kin; however, detection of kin recognition may have been masked by the large effects of site and seed origin on germination and survival. could influence interior Douglas-fir stand dynamics and resistance to water stress.View record, The McLure fire of August, 2003, affected over 26,000 hectares in the interior of British Columbia. When she shares her discovery, she is ridiculed by her peers and loses her position. Gaps of 20 – 80 m² were too small to initiate gap-phase regeneration, however, as indicated by low seed emergence and slow height growth rates. Photo : Radio-Canada / Camille Vernet In chapter 2 of this dissertation, I examined the effects of light, moisture, nutrients and neighbor density on juvenile subalpine fir growth. Regeneration of western hemlock under a closed canopy it is tightly associated with coarse woody debris (CWD). Suzanne Simard, professeur de sciences forestières à l’université de Colombie-Britannique (UBC), a prouvé que les arbres pouvaient communiquer avec leurs pairs à travers plus de 80 expérimentations scientifiques. Experiments have demonstrated movement of carbon and nitrogen between Douglas-fir and neighboring plants in response to source-sink dynamics, seasonality, and differences in age of linked plants. We haven’t looked,” says forest ecologist Suzanne Simard (above). If the themes of harmony, connection, and collaboration between humans and trees in the movie Avatar inspired you, stand by. Étudier la forêt, c'est une histoire de famille chez les Simard. is a widely distributed western North American conifer that can grow under a wide range of light environments, initial densities and site qualities. Net carbon transfer occurs under soil disturbance between Pseudotsuga menziesii var. Back to top . Variable retention harvesting and natural regeneration from residual trees, for example, may become increasingly important for their locally adaptive traits as climate changes. Decreasing the soil inoculum potential, while decreasing overall performance, increased the kin response. Because of recent evidence implying the capacity for Douglas-fir to recognize kin, as well as differential colonization of Douglas-fir by ectomycorrhizas based on tree relatedness, this thesis aimed to determine whether Douglas-fir would preferentially transfer carbon and/or nitrogen through mycorrhizal networks to kin over strangers in response to herbivory treatment. There she teaches courses in forest and soil ecology, and complex adaptive systems. This indicated that symmetric competition processes dominated. There, neither protection in small gaps nor access to mycorrhizal networks were sufficient to create favourable regeneration conditions. Department of Forest & Conservation Sciences, Promoting Excellence in Graduate Programs, Supporting Student Development and Success. Verified email at - Homepage. Sort by citations Sort by year Sort by title. Furthermore, molecular characterization of Armillaria using translation elongation factor-1 alpha (tef-1) and ITS revealed the occurrence of A. gallica, reported for the first time at this site. She contributes to this goal by co… In this 18-minute lecture, Simard details her experiments of the past 30 years on the unique way trees communicate with one another and how that has translated into an in-depth knowledge of the ecosystem of a forest. We used DNA metabarcoding targeting the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) marker and the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to decipher the microbiomes. Recent work suggests MNs also transfer defense-related information from pathogen-, herbivore-, or mechanically-damaged plants to unharmed neighbors. Our results highlight the existence of multiple axes of within-species fine-root adjustments that were consistent with a potential increase in fine-root acquisitive capacity with environmental limitations.Next, to better integrate mycorrhizal symbiosis into trait-based plant ecology, we combined trait measurements of fine roots and ectomycorrhizal fungi with next-generation sequencing. In late 2015 NSERC announced that this SPG, led by Suzanne Simard, was selected for funding in the themes of ‘Natural Resources’ and ‘Optimizing Resource Extraction, Harvesting and Renewal’. The mechanisms by which the struggling paper birch interacted with interior Douglas-fir were revealed in the trenching experiment, where ability to form mycorrhizal networks resulted in cumulative benefits to paper birch over time, with significantly less growth loss in untrenched than trenched treatments. UBC - A Place of Mind. To accomplish this, I pulse-labeled ¹³C-glucose solution into the phloem of mature trees. Suzanne Simard is a professor of forest ecology and teaches at the University of British Columbia.. She is a biologist and has tested theories about how trees communicate with other trees. Seeds of interior Douglas-fir germinate after mixed severity disturbances, but their survival appears to depend on the size of disturbance gaps, environmental resources and conditions, and colonization by mycorrhizal fungal symbionts. As a consequence, trait-based plant ecology, which has mostly focused on above-ground traits, is increasingly placing the emphasis below-ground.To improve our functional understanding of fine roots, we first quantified root morphological, chemical and architectural trait variation in interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. Overall, the treatments with the greatest disturbance severity had the greatest natural regeneration potential due to increased resource availability. Articles Cited by. Furthermore, herbivory (in the form of western spruce budworm defoliation as well as manual defoliation) induced transfer of carbon to kin over strangers. TED Radio Hour featured UBC forestry professor Suzanne Simard for her research in tree communications. My research addressed two objectives: 1) To compare establishment and survival of western hemlock germinants among different microsites (CWD with different wood breakdown levels and forest floor) in the forest understory; and 2) To investigate whether carbon is transferred through mycorrhizal networks from mature trees to seedlings established on CWD. Kin recognition, mycorrhizal networks, or the combination of the two may be important mechanisms for enhanced seedling establishment in these regions. Understory light availability declined with increasing soil N supply, while understory Abies lasiocarpa had strong correlations between foliar N% and soil N availability, despite shading effects. I found no evidence of C transfer between seedlings through growth chamber ¹³CO₂ labeling, but D₂O labeling and natural abundance H₂¹⁸O measurements are suggestive of increasing water transfer from donor to receiver seedlings as receiver water deficiency increased.View record, Anthropogenic climate change threatens the stability of Arctic C stores. MNs at the forest stand scale; (3) contrast MN architectures between phytocentric and mycocentric perspectives and between xeric and mesic plots, and identify critical determinants of MN architectures. I also found the first evidence that there is carbon transfer from mature trees to regenerating seedlings established on CWD. Dr Simard is an excellent prof - encouraging, inspirational, knows what she's talking about, has interesting stories, and very importantly: she wants to see students succeed. Three seminars will be given by Suzanne Simard. View all experts | View all fields. Molecules potentially involved in defense signaling were identified using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. Overall, the results indicate that, given a seed source, the natural regeneration potential of Douglas-fir is high after both wildfire and clearcut harvesting.View record, Common ectomycorrhizal (EM) networks are expected to facilitate conifer regeneration under abiotic stress, such as drought exacerbated by climate change. With colleagues at UBC, she launched TerreWEB, an innovative graduate training program that integrates global change science, social science and communications research. The B horizon of stumped plots was significantly enriched with potential plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR), such as rhizobia. But forest ecologist Suzanne Simard says it’s not that simple; organisms living below ground will play a large role in whether or not trees can settle in new regions. ), ISBN: 978-953-307-144-2 Teste FP, Simard SW, Durall DM, Guy R, Berch SM (2010). Suzanne Simard (UBC) is a leading world expert in forest ecology and silviculture systems, especially regeneration silviculture. We provided evidence for decoupled variation in fine-root morphological and chemical traits. A mycorrhizal network is formed when two or more plants are linked by the same mycorrhizal fungus. To test these relationships, I examined 1) soil N indices and the tradeoffs between soil fertility and light attenuation in old-growth forest understories; 2) the effects of light and N constraints on understory sapling foliar N concentration (N%), N per unit area (Na), and natural abundance of ¹³C; 3) the effects of light and soil N supply on species growth and photosynthetic activity in a factorial field experiment; and 4) the mechanisms responsible for the stagnation of understory saplings. These exploratory results suggest positive potential for action-based plant-oriented digital games in the higher education classrooms. “Dr. The film centres around the groundbreaking scientific discoveries that Suzanne Simard has been making in the Canadian Wilderness since the 1990s and that seem to be valid for all natural forests around the world! She's been among my favourite professors since starting at UBC. Dr Simard is an excellent prof - encouraging, inspirational, knows what she's talking about, has interesting stories, and very importantly: she wants to see students succeed. "A forest is much more than what you see," says ecologist Suzanne Simard. She is able to ‘escape from the ivory tower’ and share her passion and scientific results with the general public and laypersons. 2424 Main Mall. A professor of forest ecology at the University of British Columbia's Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences in Vancouver, Suzanne Simard studies the surprising and delicate complexity in nature. Professor Suzanne Simard will be giving 2 keynote sessions at this year's Bioneers Conference. TED Talk Subtitles and Transcript: "A forest is much more than what you see," says ecologist Suzanne Simard. She discovered that trees use complex, symbiotic underground networks to communicate and share resources, uprooting the idea that nature constantly competes for survival. After 24 and 48 hrs, I measured expression of two regulatory genes on the jasmonate and ethylene pathways. I found that western hemlock successful recruitment was associated with the presence of medium to advanced decay classes of CWD. 2424 Main Mall Leader of The Mother Tree Project, Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, Forest Sciences Centre 3601 Transfer was determined by measuring δ¹³C and δ¹³N in tissues (needle, stem, root) of kin and stranger seedlings. The culture-based assessment focused on 16S rDNA substantiated the dominance of potential PGPRs in the stumped plots. Strong correlations between foliar Na and ¹³C or growth increment suggest foliar N per unit area is the simplest integration of light availability and N nutrition on leaf photosynthetic activity. glauca (Beissn.) Suzanne Simard, Professor of Forestry at the University of British Columbia, is an expert in the synergies and complexities of forests and the development of sustainable forest stewardship practices. This supports the hypothesis that plants reduce their carbon investment in mycorrhizal fungi when growing under favorable conditions. TED Radio Hour featured UBC forestry professor Suzanne Simard for her research in tree communications. Kin relationship considerations may be particularly important in harsh climates or at the leading edge of the range of Douglas-fir, which is expected to move northward and upward as the climate shifts.View record, Stump removal (stumping) is an effective forest management practice used to reduce the mortality of trees affected by fungal pathogen-mediated root diseases such as Armillaria root rot, but its impact on soil microbial community structure has not been ascertained. Listen to episode ten below, and make sure to subscribe wherever you get your podcasts. Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z4. Forest Ecology and Silvics BSF (’83) Brit Col, MS (’89), PhD (’95) Oregon. genets and interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. SW Simard, DA Perry, MD Jones, DD Myrold, DM Durall, R Molina . Assignment 1: Students will write a reflective essay about the interactions between ecology, resilience and adaptability (~500 words). British Columbia’s Interior Douglas fir forests are predicted to move north, following the climate they thrive in. C-transfer among Betula nana pairs through MNs represented 5.5 ± 2.2% of photosynthesis, total belowground transfer of C was 10.7 ± 2.1%. Taken as a whole, these results illustrate the possible benefits of maintaining broadleaves in commercially valuable conifer plantations, both in terms of direct health benefits to conifers, and in the broader sense of providing negative feedback mechanisms to species loss and ecosystem instability.View record, Insight into influences on successful seedling establishment could be essential to future regeneration of British Columbia’s interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. When grown in the field, seedlings required a greater density for a kin/stranger differential response to be detected. Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z4. These fungi help trees acquire nutrients and water from the soil in exchange for carbon. Greater understanding of mycorrhizae has the potential to improve our multi-faceted relationships with the ecosystems upon which we depend.View record, Growing mixed conifer-broadleaf forests instead of monoculture coniferous forests could reduce problems with seedling regeneration, disease and volume loss, all of which are expected to increase with warmer climates and more frequent droughts. Natural regeneration potential was assessed by measuring seedling performance and mycorrhizal diversity over a three-year period. Yet, we also identified moderate but consistent trait-environment linkages across populations of Douglas-fir. Positive interactions can come in the shape of intraspecific interactions such as kin selection, or interspecific interactions, such a mycorrhizal symbiosis. This line of inquiry will be particularly important to better manage existing forests and to ensure that well-adapted forest tree populations are regenerated in the future.View record, Mycorrhizal networks create pathways for movement of resources and information molecules belowground. We examined the effects of relationship (kin vs. non-kin) and mycorrhizal networks on regeneration from seed in greenhouse and field settings. Our results could have important forest management implications, particularly surrounding the concepts of legacy trees and natural regeneration of the locally adapted seed they produce, maintaining access to mycorrhizal associations and networks and the potential for family substructuring. CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19): please review UBC’s general information and FAQs and G+PS's graduate student-specific information. Dr. Suzanne Simard is a Professor of Forest Ecology at the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the leader of The Mother Tree Project. Professor. Refereed Journal Articles, Published Simard, S.W., Asay, A.K., Beiler, K.J., Bingham, M.A., Deslippe, J.R., He, X., Philip, L.J., Song, Y., Teste, F.P. Positive interactions between plants, in addition to competition, can help shape a plant community and ecosystem. In two separate experiments that differed in climate (very dry, hot and dry, cool Interior Douglas-fir (IDF) subzones), and disturbance agent (natural and harvested), I sowed interior Douglas-fir seed into different sized forest canopy gaps. Cited by. Suzanne Simard, Ph.D. Dr. Suzanne Simard is a Professor of Forest Ecology in the Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences at the University of British Columbia. Dr. Suzanne Simard Project Leader. My primary hypothesis is that light and soil N availability have species-specific effects on photosynthetic activity and growth, and that together these resources will better define understory development in complex forests. Her main focus is on the below-ground fungal networks that connect trees and facilitate underground inter-tree communication and interaction. Her 30 years of research in Canadian forests have led to an astounding discovery -- trees talk, often and over vast distances. UBC Faculty of Forestry. SIMARD, Suzanne. Website I haven't rated … These are fungi that are beneficial to the plants and through this association, the fungus, which can’t photosynthesize of course, explores the soil. Ectomycorrhizal fungi that can form mycorrhizal networks were found on all seedlings. glauca) forests, particularly as climate changes. View all experts | View all fields. Dr. Suzanne Simard is a Professor of Forest Ecology at the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the leader of The Mother Tree Project. She can be heard giving talks for TED and Radiolab. At UBC, she has a vibrant research program, a teaching program focused on forest ecology and complexity science, and she is a strong contributor to the forestry profession in Canada. Sarg.) Kin recognition was also weakly evident in the field, where it was expressed as differential survivorship among kin versus non-kin seedlings. Mycorrhizal networks and carbon transfer occurred within all greenhouse seedling pairs, and enhanced mycorrhization of kin suggests network colonization was involved in kin selection, but our data does not strongly support our hypothesis that kin recognition was facilitated by mycorrhizal networks. Repeated measurements (% cover and height) of vascular plants were collected between 1981 and 2008 (1, 2, 3, 5, 10 and 20 years after clearcutting and slashburning) in permanent research installations. Publications by Author: Allen Larocque Alice Chang Amanda Asay Brian Pickle Camille Defrenne Elana Evans Gabriel Orrego Katie McMahen Laura Super Monika Gorzelak Suzanne Simard Teresa Ryan Recent Selected Publications Refereed Journal Articles, Published […] My objectives were 1) to asses the role of mycorrhizal networks (MN) in plant-plant interactions; 2) to determine the effects of warming and fertilization on the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community of Betula nana; 3) to determine the effect of warming on soil fungi and bacteria over time; 4) to assess the role of the mycorrhizal symbiosis in C-allocation to rhizosphere organisms. Faculty of Forestry. Learn more about the harmonious yet complicated social lives of trees and prepare to see the natural world with new eyes. The highest biomass accumulation and foliar nitrogen content occurred in the high severity burn and were associated with the lowest levels of mycorrhizal colonization and diversity. The pervasive mycelia and extensive MNs formed by these Rhizopogon spp. You can find all of our episodes here. She—and other scientists studying roots, and also chemical signals and even the sounds plant make—have pushed the study of plants into the realm of intelligence. Overall, survival was greatest for these seedlings relative to those from the wet or dry provenances, but decreased with summer heat:moisture index more rapidly. Professor Suzanne Simard will be giving 2 keynote sessions at this year's Bioneers Conference. These results have implications for sustainable forest management practices, including retention of legacy trees and plants with timber harvesting and inoculation of seedlings with mycorrhizal fungi at the time of planting.View record, How resilience is understood and measured has become increasingly challenging for ecologists, particularly as terrestrial ecosystems are undergoing radical change as climate changes. No MN structural differences were found between phytocentric and mycocentric models or between xeric versus mesic plots. Mycorrhizal networks in xeric and mesic old-growth interior Doublas-fir forest plots (2012), Natural Regeneration Potential of Douglas-Fir Following Wildfire and Clearcut Harvesting (2011), The Role of Ectomycorrhizal Networks in Plant-to-Plant Facilitation Across Climatic Moisture Gradient (2011), Carbon, Plant and Microbial Dynamics in Low-Arctic Tundra (2010), Effects of Nurse Tree Species on Growth Environment and Physiology of Underplanted Toona ciliata Roem in Subtropical Argentinian Plantations (2009), Interacting effects of soil nitrogen supply and light availability on understory sapling growth and foliar attributes (2008), Western hemlock regeneration on coarse woody debris is facilitated by linkage into a mycorrhizal network in an old-growth forest (2018), Forest canopy gap size affects regeneration potential of interior Douglas-fir (2016), Networks of communication: defense-related signal transfer between tree seedlings via mycorrhizal networks and an educational mycorrhizal-focused video game (2016), Interspecific Interactions in Mixed Stands of Douglas fir and paper birch (2015), Mycorrhizal facilitation of kin recogniation in interior Douglas-fir (2013). Find contact's direct phone number, email address, work history, and more. Social-Ecological Systems Research Group The Environmental Social Sciences (ESS) span a range of disciplines (e.g. ARCESE, Peter. Background In late 2015, Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) announced that this strategic project grant (SPG), led by Dr. Suzanne Simard (University of British Columbia), was selected for funding in the themes of ‘Natural Resources’ and ‘Optimizing Resource Extraction, Harvesting and Renewal’. Seedlings regenerating in the burn treatments had the lowest ectomycorrhizal colonization in the first growing season but all seedlings in all treatments were colonized by the start of the second growing season. If this is your researcher profile you can log in to the Faculty & Staff portal to update your details and provide recruitment preferences. Suzanne Simard: All trees all over the world, including paper birch and Douglas fir, form a symbiotic association with below-ground fungi. I investigated the defense pathways involved in defense-related signal transfer in ectomycorrhizal systems. Prof. Suzanne Simard shares her story and why she's so passionate about forestry. Individual species sensitive to the forestry treatment (recorded exclusively pre-burn) included Rhododendron albiflorum, Menziesia ferruginea and Prosartes hookeri in the ICH; Rubus pedatus in the SBS; and Orthilia secunda, Listera cordata and Moneses uniflora in the ESSF. Environment and Public Health MD (’98) Uppsala, PhD (’11) Alnarp. In both experiments, I tested the effects of canopy gap size and access to mycorrhizal networks on seedling performance (establishment, growth, water use efficiency, foliar nutrition, mycorrhizal colonization) and environmental resources and conditions (light, temperature, soil moisture). Survival was maximized when seedlings were able to form an EM network in the absence of root competition, both in growth chambers and in the field for the medium moisture provenance. But, just as with Lynn Margulis and her My study shows that regeneration potential of interior Douglas-fir is severely limited by the very dry, hot climate in the low elevation IDF forests, but can be increased in wetter, cooler climates with forest harvesting practices that create moderately sized canopy gaps.View record, The majority of terrestrial plants associate with fungi in symbiotic resource-exchange relationships called mycorrhizae. In the second experiment, where the climate was cooler and wetter, seedling survival reached 74% in harvested gaps that were 80 – 300 m² in area, corresponding with greater soil moisture availability. The daughter of a logging family in British Columbia, Suzanne Simard was inspired to study trees. Mycorrhization greatly influenced productivity of western redcedar seedlings; without mycorrhizal inoculum, redcedar did not achieve its full growth potential in HA clearcuts.