Based on both fourth tasseled cap parameter and a haze optimized 1.. A survey was carried out from August 2015 to May 2016 during the low tide period. clouds from remotely sensed images of Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ over land has Mumbai. Mangrove forests are one among the pivotal coastal are presented in Fig. This study also highlights the importance of climate change and mangrove vegetation. extent, through various natural and biotic influences. (Harper & Row Publ., New York) 1982, pp.343-355. However, the RT and XO methods offer inherent advantages, and the future work to combine the elevation change detection methods to produce better estimates is warranted. Sundri tress are being replaced by Gewa. Superimposition of 1996 and 2001, map layers was later undertaken. Total timber volume for all of the species has been reduced to near about a half. Mangrove Society of India (Mumbai Chapter) 1, Safina Sadan, Seven Bungalows, Andheri (W) Mumbai – 400061 28th August, 2009 Secretary Environment Government of Maharashtra Mantralaya Mumbai Member Secretary Maharashtra Coastal Zone Management Authority Mantralaya Mumbai Dear Mrs. Singh and Dr. Patil, The total area of mangroves in Mumbai suburban region has been estimated to be 56.40 km² (including mud flats) with dense mangroves contributing 45.4% to the total. 0000006553 00000 n 0000002870 00000 n Mumbai Mangroves, 2007) Figure d: Development into Mangroves (Source: Mumbai Mangroves, 2007) 5.0 Importance of mangroves to Mumbai By reducing flood wave and trapping silt, mangroves maintain the integrity of Mumbai’s shoreline. in Resources Engineering (CSRE), IIT, Bombay, Mumbai. It was found that new mangrove, Table 3—Change detection in mangrove areas (km, Table 4—Composition and Ecological Status of, areas are emerging in Thane creek along the Navi, Mumbai stretch and in the Pascal Wadi stretch of, Malad creek. These mangroves support a rich diversity of life forms, especially molluscs. the rectangle (Iskapalli lagoon) is enlarged in Fig. 0000003574 00000 n It was the British who, upon realizing the strategic and commercial importance of the islands of the Arabian Sea, ordered for the clearing of the mangroves that rimmed the once-separated islands to create a continuous land mass then known as Greater Bombay. Hindustan Times (2017, November 4) Real-time satellite imagery to help track health of mangrove forests in Maharashtra. In case of Elephanta, it was an Island category mangrove habitat. This is a vital service to the city of Mumbai as it is very The measured data presents wave height attenuation of the order of 52 %. To assess the ability of such observations to diagnose the dust composition, we simulate the transmission spectra from 5-14 $\mu$m for the planet tail assuming an optically-thin dust cloud comprising a single dust species with a constant column density scaled to yield a chosen visible transit depth. Today, many of these mangroves have disappeared and only a few remain. The area enclosed by, GIS 3.2a software. 0000002629 00000 n Using a uniform approach for quantifying uncertainties, we find that volume change rates at the drainage system scale from the four methods can be reconciled within 1-σ uncertainties in just 5 of 19 drainage systems. endstream endobj 1118 0 obj<>/W[1 1 1]/Type/XRef/Index[59 1034]>>stream Spectral analysis performed for the cases with and without vegetation very clearly portrays energy dissipation in the vegetation area as well as spectral changes. Natural inland aquatic resources such as rivers, creeks, mangroves as well as manmade resources such as reservoirs, shrimp farms and shrimp hatcheries of Ratnagiri district were mapped using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS). The hazes and clouds can be detected on the base of, Disintegrating planets allow for the unique opportunity to study the composition of the interiors of small, hot, rocky exoplanets because the interior is evaporating and that material is condensing into dust, which is being blown away and then transiting the star. (2005) and Lakshmi et al. molluscan species diversity from mangrove ecosystem along the Mumbai coast has been documented in This study utilized a 10-m resolution Sentinel satellite image series to document vegetation changes in a portion of the Florida Keys, USA, over which the core of Category 4 Hurricane Irma passed on 10 September 2017. Mumbai as mentioned before is the financial capital of India, these floods cause huge heavy damages to Indian economy along with these they also cause a huge loss of life property and cattle, giving rise to diseases and emotional disturbances for those who survived. The mangrove community as a whole consists of salt tolerant plants of soft and swampy mud, mostly trees and shrubs, with broad, leathery, evergreen leaves. the <]>> To know more, click here. Remote sensing technology was used to detect changes in the mangrove habitat around the Mumbai suburban region. Mangroves in and around Mumbai have undergone massive destruction. Some of the impacts of conversion of mangrove ecosystem for aquaculture purposes are discussed in the present paper. At the advent of the British rule the forest was double their present extent. 20-26. The details, and (3) were provided by Centre of Studies. The change in the area of mangroves pertaining to, the Mumbai suburban region for a period of 11 years, was lost. Conversely, indirect impacts, such as freshwater diversion or chemical pollution, cannot be monitored with sensors operating in the visi- ble part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Mangroves destruction to blame for flooding of Mumbai: Experts. 1989, Valiela et al. of the major threats to molluscan fauna. But pollution is threatening the mangroves that draw in fish and … The primary aim of the study is to estimate wave attenuation by mangrove vegetation using SWAN model in standalone mode, as well as SWAN nested with WW3 model for the Mumbai coastal region. Anthropogenic, activities involving development projects have most. of India, from August 2015 to May 2016, revealed a distribution of 61 molluscan species, represented by For com, purpose, ground truth data were collected from, Manori, Malad, Mahim, Mahul and Thane creek, Table 5—Density of mangrove in Mumbai suburban region, 2001, In India a number of workers have carried out, change detection studies using remotely sensed, . Everard, M. et al. This method can be used for atmospheric 20-26. The help, rendered by Dr. Swagat Banik during the field visits, mapping of coastal wetlands/land forms and shoreline, changes using satellite data, Technical Note, IRS-. 0000008306 00000 n In the Godavari delta (India) mangroves are receding in area and biomass; in the Ganges, the Sunderbans (India and Bangladesh) are evolving very slowly in size but an important species substitution is in progress; in the Irrawaddy (Myanmar) mangroves are in continuous decline. Experts predict that all 5,000 acres of mangroves that were decimated by voracious moths will be lush and green again by January Over the past few days, swathes of mangroves across Mumbai … along with the mangroves in the present study. 0000002067 00000 n A total of 10 mangrove species were reported in this area, dominated by Avicennia marina. The dominant species along the coast are Rhizophora mucronata, Avicennia officinalis, A. marina, Sonneratia alba, S. apetala, while Excoecaria agallocha and Acanthus ilicifolius are very common. Besides demarcating, the mangrove patches, the main railway and, Field checks were performed after the mapping of, data and classification of mangroves in the study area, was completed, to ascertain the accuracy of prediction, based on the remote sensing keys developed. The large difference in, present study may be due to inclusion of mudflats. H.J, (IFAS,University of Florida) 1975, pp.71-87. demonstrated experimentally. reflectance difference with the other regions, likes thermal spectrum development and initial results of the prototype ka-band processes that impact predictability of the NWP models. Attenuation of Wave Energy Due to Mangrove Vegetation off Mumbai, India, Vegetative structure and species composition of mangroves along the Mumbai coast, Maharashtra India, Wave energy dissipation in the mangrove vegetation off Mumbai, India, Molluscan diversity in the mangrove ecosystem of Mumbai, west coast of India, Satellite Image-Based Time Series Observations of Vegetation Response to Hurricane Irma in the Lower Florida Keys, Plastics: A menace to the mangrove ecosystems of megacity Mumbai, India, . 46 gastropods, 14 bivalves and 1 polyplacophora. Remote Sensing emerges as a valuable, tool for fast, efficient and accurate means of, information retrieval to detect causes, extent and, modification of structural changes over time. SCI., VOL. The mangroves in Mumbai assumed greater significance following their role in combating floods in 2005 by buffering the rainwater in flooded areas situated near mangroves (Joshi & Kale, 2013). cloud radar developed by SAMEER Mumbai are presented. %PDF-1.5 %���� Additionally they are. This document describes the problems faced in Mumbai due to the continuous destruction of mangroves. 0000010906 00000 n mangrove areas in Mumbai fall within this region. 1. systems around the world. Carter Road is the only stretch on the entire west front where mangroves have recorded a growth in the last decade. Worldwide mangroves are fast depleting but because of the conservation order, Mumbai and its neighboring areas now boast of more than 5,800 hectares of mangrove land which is protected and will protect the city in future. x���{��c���Ь�.Z6�SB�`��0��B�l�>���E/�/Xu���My;���.������=����[�yU�M�`�gf�"L��� ��?���$��@�b/Ou""���% If more disintegrating planets are found with future missions such as the space telescope TESS, follow-up observations with JWST can explore the range of planetary compositions. Based, upon the change detection studies carried out over a, 11 year frame work between 1990 and 2001, it can be, suburban region are decreasing at a fast pace (39.32%, decrease between 1990 and 2001) and only integrated, conservation and management measures can help the, upkeep of this fragile environment on a sustainable, The first author expresses his sincere thanks to the, Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) for, the award of Junior Research Fellowship. Collection of samples. mangroves in Mumbai varied from 248.7 Km2 [10] to 200 Km2 [11] to 92.94 Km2 [12] to 26.97 Km2 [13]. Height classes of the forest have been changed, basal area/ha has decreased. metabolism of a Puerto Rican red mangrove forest. Cloud microphysical study is one of the important physical 0000001749 00000 n CIR aerial photographs have been found most suitable for cover type analysis and other change detection study. single Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ image, haze and clouds can be quantitatively Yet, a systematic cognition of the unique contribution of remote sensing on studying mangrove forest extent dynamic is lacking, which prevents us from clearly identifying and further overcoming current deficiencies of studying the change of mangrove forest extent with remote sensing. The formation of these, marshlands can be traced to coastal alluvial, region falling between the co-ordinates 19, studied for the change detection part, as most of. The primary aim of the study was to estimate wave energy attenuation by mangrove vegetation using modeling, and to validate the model results with measurements conducted off Mumbai coast, where a mangrove forest is present. The total mangrove area in Mumbai is … To substantiate the model results, wave measurements were carried out during 5–8 August 2015 at 3 locations in a transect normal to the coast using surface mounted pressure level sensors under spring tide conditions. Analysis of remote sensing data indicate approximately 210 km2 of the mangrove area along the Maharashtra coast. The images were processed by using ERDAS Imagine 9.1 and Arc Map 10.1 softwares. The images used were cloud free, standard false, colour composites (FCC) so that the spatial details, Standard FCCs from the following sources were. The total area of mangroves in Mumbai suburban region has been estimated to be 56.40 km2 (including mud flats) with dense mangroves contributing 45.4% to the total. The data reveal that for 2.5 months after the storm, multiple inland vegetation classes showed substantial early regrowth. All rights reserved. The. Mangroves are small sturdy woody plants which are found in low-lying shallow areas. DNA BARCODES TO STUDY DIVERSITY AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF CLAMS FOUND IN AND AROUND MUMBAI COAST. Digital maps of each resource with details were incorporated using GIS techniques. K2-22b), making these good candidates for transmission spectroscopy. The study shows a linear relationship between wave height attenuation and gradual changes in water level in the nearshore region, in phase with the tides. 0000000016 00000 n automatically recognize and remove contamination of hazes and clouds Timber volume/ha and basal area/ha for Gewa have increased in the Sharankhola Island of the forest. been proposed. It was observed that wave attenuation increased with an increase in drag coefficient (Cd), vegetation density, and stem diameter. For evaluating the molluscan diversity, 25 representative sites from the 8 mangrove areas of Mumbai were selected based on the mangrove diversity and various typical habitat characteristics following Vijay et al. A previously assembled field survey was used to establish land-cover patterns in the satellite data, and concurrent field measurements verified post-hurricane changes. methods using Release 634 ICESat laser altimetry data: repeat tracks (RTs), crossovers (XOs), overlapping footprints (OFPs), and triangulated irregular networks (TINs). important for capture and culture fisheries. Mangrove ecosystems serve as a buffer between land and sea. Table 2 describes the area of coverage of the classes of mangroves in the years study also reports 2 new distributional records for gastropods, namely Salinator fragilis and Auriculastra Model setup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to understand the model performance with respect to vegetation parameters. Scrubby and scanty vegetation dominated by Avicennia marina, along the Bombay coast, could be attributed to constantly increasing anthropogenic pressures. Altogether 9 creeks, nine shrimp farms and one shrimp hatcheries observed in Ratnagiri district were mapped. Blasco F, Caratini C, Chanda S & Thanikaimoni G, Main. It was observed that wave attenuation increases with an increase in drag coefficient, vegetation density, and stem diameter. Since the methodology comprised, mapping through visual interpretation, the season in, which the satellite image was taken is not expected to, significantly affect the mangrove extent and its, registered using well distributed ground control points, (GCP) such as intersection of major roads, rail, network, and other permanent structures which have, not changed during these years. 34, No. Laser measurements from the NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) created altimetric surveys of GrIS surface elevations over the 2003-2009 operational period of the mission. transformation(HOT) as a measure of haze/cloud spatial density for forest of Bombay State, in: Proceedings Mangrove All the, mangroves including saplings present in 5 replicate 25, plots were counted; the average numbers were, estimated and presented as population density for, The maps depicting the distribution of sparse, dense mangroves area for 1990 and 1996 were, obtained from the Indian Institute of Technology, (IIT), Mumbai. ... Jagtap et al. Further, mangrove areas can be easily categorized into two, categories of dense and sparse mangroves. The, The sustainability of the mangrove ecosystem is of, the premier mega-cities of the world with a population, of over 13 million. During 1990 to 2001, a total mangrove area of 36.54 km 2 was lost, 25 indicating a 39.32% decrease in the area of mangroves. startxref With the help of high resolution satellite data (SPOT products), it has been possible to portray on maps the present distribution of main mangrove types and sub-types of the Bay of Bengal coastline. Hindustan Times (2017, November 4) Mumbai’s mangrove cover up by 20 percent in 15 years, reveals study. corrections to improve landscape change detection. which will prevent satellite image from assessing land surface Currently, mangroves on government land are deemed "protected forests" while those on private land are "forests". In addition, we identified several recurring limitations from previous studies. Acting against alleged landfilling in mangroves and wetlands of Uran, ... crime news, current affairs, and a complete guide from food to things to do and events across Mumbai. The result obtained in the present work, regarding the zonation suggests that the mangroves, Mumbai follow the same pattern of distribution, the isolated creeks. Mangroves Is Important part of nature But We forget value of Mangroves In this video I'm telling important of video Content available from Geetanjali Deshmukhe: mangrove mapping and change detection around Mumbai.pdf, All content in this area was uploaded by Geetanjali Deshmukhe on Sep 24, 2014, All content in this area was uploaded by Geetanjali Deshmukhe on Jun 04, 2014, Mangrove mapping and change detection around Mumbai (Bombay), Centre of Studies in Resources Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai 400 076, India, Received 21 April 2004, revised 19 April 2005, For this purpose, cloud free satellite images, and IRS-IC were used. IRS P6 LISS III images with 23 m resolution can be processed after enhancing resolution to 15 m by merging with Landset ETM+ image to map inland fisheries resources through Geographical Information System. 1—Location of the Penner delta. of India Press, Calcutta), 1957, pp. The, present study deals with the extent, composition and, spread of the mangrove system in Mumbai and, change detection from A.D.1990 to 2001 with, The port city of greater Mumbai, along west coast, composed of a cluster of seven small islands, were connected by causeways, reclamation and filling, up of shallow marshy areas that separated these, land narrowing to a point at Colaba at its southern, extremity. 0000006305 00000 n This study has the potential of improving the quality of wave prediction in vegetation areas, especially during monsoon season and extreme weather events. integral part of mangrove ecosystems. Regular monitoring of the changes of the forest using remote sensing technique has been suggested. Mangrove forests have a unique character of floating foliage and roots. of India Press, Calcutta), 1957, pp. THE MANGROVES Mangroves are an integral part of the landscape of Mumbai. 5�o��ˣ�W+�e�S�uu�1 � *:0�_��"�O͆:�7�����ʅ�M�h��Q�G��n�p���Tz�'Q�Y�VDoB���^��vՆ�ƭ:�aߓ��5�A�\�m*�{H�1J�1{B��� �.��, 1Bz RsٳJ(��dZ��#�˲�ӯ.��%`�,�VK@bA�'�ã�Ȥp��G#j=�6yK�#o��!` 3, SEPTEMBER 2005, digitization. Comparison of Elevation Change Detection Methods From ICESat Altimetry Over the Greenland Ice Sheet. Interestingly mangroves are Indian mangrove has a long history that received one of the world’s richest storehouses of biological and attention right from the 17 century itself … This accounted for 39.32% decrease in, area under the mangroves. The present distribution and status of each mangrove type is the result of direct and indirect anthropic factors. Around 5,000 acres of Mangroves across Mumbai and Navi Mumbai were recently found decimated after a series of moth attacks over the past few months.The region has started to show signs of rejuvenation with indication towards full recovery by the month of January. CRZ/SN/02/00 (Indian Space Research Organisation. MANGROVES IN GENERAL INTRODUCTION Mangroves are a group of plants that occur in the coastal intertidal zones of tropics and the sub-tropics. Remote sensing and Geographical Information System technique have been used to map creeks, shrimp farms and shrimp hatcheries. 0000018350 00000 n The storm caused extensive mortality of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), corresponding to more than 40% of the total mangrove area on some islands. However, Kandelia candal, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Ceriops tagal, Lumnitzera racemosa are restricted to few localities. This study was not intended to assess the zonation pattern of mangroves; but based on our in situ observation, it may be noted that the zonation pattern is in accordance with suggestion of. It has been observed that the quantitative. region. However, in the Thane, suburban region based on field studies is summarised, in Table 5. We find that silicate resonant features near 10 $\mu$m can produce transit depths that are at least as large as those in the visible. Qualitative observations of these cloud microphysical Mangroves play a very protective role against some of these coastal hazards. The number of species reported from the study is the About 40 ha of these newly-protected areas are along the Mithi river, which is choked by illegal construction. Aquatic Conservation, 24 (2), 256-274. The megacity Mumbai has mangroves on its coastline along the west coast of India. the technical, hardware specifications, system design & Various studies confirm the destruction of mangrove throughout the globe and in particular have focused on estimating the total area cleared, rate of clearing, loss of sediments and erosion (Hatcher et al. 0000001495 00000 n Zingde [14] reported that Mumbai has lost 40 % of all its mangroves in the past decade because of overexploitation and unsustainable demand for housing, slums, sewage treatment and garbage Based on the visual interpretation techniques the mangroves were sub-divided into 2 classes, viz., dense mangroves and sparse mangroves. Maps prepared from images of, INDIAN J. MAR. For the sake, better co-ordination a single department such as, Forests may be made the nodal agency at the, level for conservation and development of, The present study demonstrated that satellite, remote sensing data is a valuable tool for the easy, assessment of mangrove habitat. 0000001153 00000 n Their transit signal is dominated by dusty effluents forming a comet-like tail trailing the host planet (or leading it, in the case of. 0000005068 00000 n Mangrove forests not only support coastal marine, organisms but also protect the coast from erosion and, serve as breeding, feeding and nursery grounds for, estuarine and marine organisms. 0000000852 00000 n often resulted in depletion of coastal resources, destruction of critical habitats, disruption of, ecosystem processes and loss of biodiversity. The density of mangrove flora was, were located away from edge conditions along, and thereby indicating the area covered. The full extent of mangrove die-off was not immediately evident, and increased progressively through the first few months after the storm. 0000009442 00000 n 0000018583 00000 n Our volume change estimates lie within the range of previously published estimates, highlighting that the choice of method plays a dominant role in the scatter of volume change estimates. Change detection study has been made for the mangrove forest of the Sunderbans (Bangladesh) using remote sensing and other ancillary data (1933–1987). In India the yield of mangrove cum estuarine dependent fisheries is 30,000 tonnes of fish and about 15,000 tonnes of crabs and prawns per year. Various aspects of the mangroves in the area have been studied by Chaphekar and Deshmukh (1996), Jagtap et al. Although a number of published approaches to identifying and mapping mangroves with high resolution satellite data exist (Wang et al. This algorithm uses only the image feature to The There was a loss of 44.28, (-58.98%) in sparse mangroves and interestingly, area during 1990 to 2001 (Table 2). Mangrove forests continue to disappear all over the world, they were Coastal regions of India are prone to sea level rise, cyclones, storm surges, and human-induced activities, resulting in flood, erosion, and inundation, and some of these impacts could be attributed to climate change. IRS P6 LISS III images were used for mapping. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was utilized as a tracer for pre-storm baseline patterns and through 19 post-storm months. It is observed that there is a net decrease in Sundri standing volume of the order of 40% and that of Gewa 45% over the past 25 years (1960–1985). Not only have large swathes of mangroves dried up, the land is also being encroached upon. mangrove areas from non-mangrove areas. As a result the density of mangroves in and around Mumbai has been on a decline. subula. During 1990 to 2001, a total mangrove area of 36.54 km2 was lost, indicating a 39.32% decrease in the area of mangroves. Spectral analysis performed for the cases with and without vegetation very clearly portrays energy dissipation in the vegetation area. 1093 26 0000008604 00000 n PDF | Mumbai's mangroves have been significantly depleted through historical city development and continuing encroachment. Model set-up and sensitivity analyses were conducted to understand the model performance to vegetation parameters. The detectability of compositional features is easier with an average grain size of 1 $\mu$m despite features being more prominent with smaller grain sizes. Molluscs form a major group of organisms that makes-up an s.��X�4���k���o,$?q�n`�}�q!�?�̏Lqi�xy���̅�}u��}�����2�ؾȉ�/u3R�Ҳ� The objects were identified on the basis of ground truth and GIS maps were prepared. However, mangrove forests were more negatively affected. Mumbai has set aside 224 hectares (ha) of mangroves as reserve forests. Based on this, the over all accuracy of, mapping was found to be about 90%. We find most features are still detectable for transit depths of ~0.3% in the visible range. Since s, In this paper, a optimized algorithm to recognize and remove hazes and IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. The satellite images of IRS P6 LISS and LISS IV images were used for mapping. (Govt. Symposium (Govt. However, they are fast disappearing owing to rampant construction and lack of governmental will for their protection. For this purpose, cloud free satellite images on the scale of 1 : 50,000 from Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite IRS-ID and IRS-IC were used. ��sUҹܖ. Roots of the Water World. ... For evaluating the molluscan diversity, 25 representative sites from the 8 mangrove areas of Mumbai were selected based on the mangrove diversity and various typical habitat characteristics following. Mumbai today has only 30 sq kms of mangrove forests left. tarch is the main constituent of the extruded snacks and is responsible for most of their structural attributes, they are dense in energy but nutritionally poor. MUMBAI: Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation (MMRC) along with Maharashtra State Forest Department has initiated a compensatory mangrove plantation drive at Koparkhairane in Navi Mumbai. This paper compares four change detection. trailer The main reasons for this depletion are reclamation of land for paddy cultivation, salt pan scheme, reclamation of land for building activities and dumping, industrial pollution of the creeks, cuttings of trees for fuel wood etc. Major mangroves seen today in Mumbai are along the Vasai creek, Thane creek, Manori and Malad, Mahim- Bandra, Versova, Sewree, Mumbra-Diva and few more places. A total of 10 rivers, 24 creeks and 2435.16 ha of mangrove area were identified and mapped. The total area, coverage by each category i.e., sparse and dense, mangroves was estimated using the ArcView, Fig. Mangroves of Mumbai Mangrove Destruction. Kulkarni1, A. Babar1, A. Jaiswar2 & B. Desai-Chavan1 1Department of Biological Oceanography, The Institute of Science, Mumbai 400 032, India.E-mail: 2Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Versova, Andheri, Mumbai 400 062, India. Figure 1 depicts the, change detection produced by the superimposition of, 2001 map over that of 1996 using ArcView GIS, software resulting in eight change detection classes. This review highlights the role of remote sensing on studying mangrove forest extent change, and is helpful to make better use of remotely sensed data in this field. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. The mangroves are sources of highly valued commercial products and fishery resources and also as sites for developing a burgeoning eco-tourism. The major recognized threats to the mangroves of Mumbai are habitat destruction for urbanization and industrialization, poor freshwater inflow, sewage disposal, and illegal dumping of wastes including plastics, ... (Map 4). 1093 0 obj<> endobj For a typical setup in the Mumbai coastal region having a vegetation density of 0.175 per m 2 , stem diameter of 0.3 m, and drag coefficient varying from 0.4 to 1.5, the model reproduced attenuation ranging from 49% to 55%, which matches reasonably well with the measured data. Classifications based on vege-, tation vigour and colour was found to be largely, and was fine tuned wherever necessary to take care of, arrangement of leaves, locations etc., by altering the, identification key after ground truthing. About 32.13% of this area is along west coast and the yield rate is about 500-600 kg/ha/yr. With the aid of high, resolution satellite images, it is possible to delineate. & Chauhan H B & Nayak S, Landuse mapping of. Estimation of the surface elevation change of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is essential for understanding its response to recent and future climate change. From 1990 to 2001, a total mangrove area of 36.54 km 2 was said to be lost, indicating a 39.32% decrease in the area of mangroves. 0000005893 00000 n Coastal regions of India are prone to sea level rise, cyclones, storm surges and human induced activities, resulting in flood, erosion, and inundation. The area, under study was stratified into subgroups having, similar colour and a random sampling approach was, deployed to gather field information.