Solanum trongum Poir. In Japanese cuisine, eggplants are known as nasu or nasubi and use the same characters as Chinese (茄子). In 13th-century Italian traditional folklore, the eggplant can cause insanity. An English botany book in 1597 described the madde or raging Apple: This plant groweth in Egypt almost everywhere... bringing foorth fruite of the bignes of a great Cucumber.... We have had the same in our London gardens, where it hath borne flowers, but the winter approching before the time of ripening, it perished: notwithstanding it came to beare fruite of the bignes of a goose egge one extraordinarie temperate yeere... but never to the full ripenesse. The fruit can be up to 20cm long in cultivated plants[200]. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. In other parts of the world, eggplants are known as aubergine or brinjal. [57], The browning of eggplant flesh results from the oxidation of polyphenols, such as the most abundant phenolic compound in the fruit, chlorogenic acid.[58]. Many of the pests and diseases that afflict other solanaceous plants, such as tomato, capsicum, and potato, are also troublesome to eggplants. He also recognized the varieties aculeatum, inerme, and subinerme at that time. Eggplant is used in the cuisines of many countries. Broccoli. Answer By Toppr. [63], The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants (Solanum aethiopicum), known as gilo and nakati, respectively, and described by Linnaeus as S. aethiopicum. Elsewhere in China, such as in Yunnan cuisine (in particular the cuisine of the Dai people) they are barbecued or roasted, then split and either eaten directly with garlic, chilli, oil and coriander, or the flesh is removed and pounded to a mash (typically with a wooden pestle and mortar) before being eaten with rice or other dishes. Rinsing, draining, and salting the sliced fruit before cooking may remove the bitterness. The less common white varieties of eggplant are also known as Easter white eggplants, garden eggs, Casper or white eggplant. These leaves are edible and may be eaten cooked or fresh, or used as a garnish. [13] Records exist from later medieval Catalan and Spanish.[14]. Eggplant is a low crab vegetable and it rates low on the glycemic index chart. In every other culture, Brinjal is used in some ways or another. The fruit is said to be very nutritious[7]. [50][51] Seeds are typically started eight to 10 weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. Other veggies in this family include potato, tomato, and peppers, which are considered nightshade vegetables. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. esculentum (L.) Nees", "Bt Brinjal in Bangladesh: Too early to draw conclusions on contamination, says expert", "Korean restaurant owner cooks from the heart Andy Starnes/Post-Gazette", "All the hallmarks of world-class cuisine", "North, South, Go Pick! [63], Like the potato and S. lichtensteinii, but unlike the tomato, which then was generally put in a different genus, the eggplant was also described as S. esculentum, in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. This was used by Tournefort as a genus name in 1700, then by Linnaeus as a species name in 1753. Eggplant (US, Australia, New Zealand, anglophone Canada), aubergine (UK, Ireland, Quebec) or brinjal (South Asia, South Africa) is a plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae. I hope you’ll make room for these wonderful fruits this growing season. [23] The Oxford English Dictionary records that between 1797 and 1888, the name vegetable egg was also used. The Dravidian word was borrowed into the Indic languages, giving ancient forms such as Sanskrit and Pali vātiṅ-gaṇa (alongside Sanskrit vātigama) and Prakrit vāiṃaṇa. The Indic word vātiṅ-gaṇa was then borrowed into Persian as bādingān. Several other names that are now invalid have been uniquely applied to it:[63], A number of subspecies and varieties have been named, mainly by Dikii, Dunal, and (invalidly) by Sweet. The fruit should not be eaten raw[132]. Flowers and leaves have minty flavor; use in teas, fruit salad, cocktails, sauces, … Cloudflare Ray ID: 5fba10eb4e13ef55 In Chinese cuisine, eggplants are known as qiézi (茄子). Timing is everything when it comes to harvesting the perfect eggplant. Place the soil in a loose manner into your pot, but make sure that it is not getting compressed. Answer this question. The … They are often deep fried and made into dishes such as yúxiāng-qiézi ("fish fragrance eggplant")[38] or di sān xiān ("three earthen treasures"). Lesser-Known Vegetables. Crushed seeds from multiple species were once used to treat toothaches. What are the edible parts of Brinjal plant? [52], Spacing should be 45 to 60 cm (18 to 24 in) between plants, depending on cultivar, and 60 to 90 cm (24 to 35 in) between rows, depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. Bicolored cultivars with striping include 'Listada de Gandia' and 'Udumalapet'. Maharashtrian Vangi Bhat recipe. Chinese cultivars are commonly shaped like a narrower, slightly pendulous cucumber. Edible plants may attract other animals that will compete with you for the harvest, such as birds, rabbits, squirrels, deer, insects, etc. The berry type of fruit is the edible part of a brinjal plant. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, eggplant leaves are toxic and narcotic, like many members of the nightshade family , so they are inedible . [28], The plant is also known as guinea squash in Southern American English. Its numerous seeds are small, soft and edible, along with the rest of the fruit, and do not have to be removed. All things considered, they are one of my personal favorites to plant in my garden each year. [55], The potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family Solanaceae such as eggplants. Scopoli's S. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant, and that of Blanco to S. Different cultivars of the plant produce fruit of different size, shape, and color, though typically purple. [25] Bāḏinjān is itself a loan-word in Arabic, whose earliest traceable origins lie in the Dravidian languages. A plant (Solanum Melongena), of East Indian origin, allied to the tomato, and bearing a large, glossy, edible fruit, shaped somewhat like an egg; mad-apple. Some other cultivars are white and longer in shape. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qimin Yaoshu, an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 C.E. The aubergine is unrecorded in England until the 16th century. Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit. Hand pollination by shaking the flowers improves the set of the first blossoms. The cut surface of the flesh rapidly turns brown when the fruit is cut open (oxidation). and see text. Tasting Korean Fare in Beijing", "Fuss-free stir-fried eggplants, a perfect side dish", "The Happy Home Cook: Rellenong Talong (Stuffed Eggplant)",, "How to Grow Eggplant in Cooler Climates", "Growing Eggplant Successfully in Cooler Climates – Garden Mentors", "Fire retardant garden plants for the urban fringe and rural areas", "Eggplant production in 2018, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)", "Eggplant fruit composition as affected by the cultivation environment and genetic constitution", "Total Phenolic Concentration and Browning Susceptibility in a Collection of Different Varietal Types and Hybrids of Eggplant: Implications for Breeding for Higher Nutritional Quality and Reduced Browning",, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles lacking in-text citations from December 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Articles needing additional references from August 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The plant and fruit have a profusion of English names. Why are My Eggplants Seedy? Plants in the nightshade family -- which includes eggplants, potatoes, peppers, tomatoes and tomatillos -- contain an alkaloid called solanine, which in very large doses can be poisonous. Plant eggplant when the soil temperature is at least 60°F, not sooner than 2 weeks after the last frost in spring. Quite often, cooking is necessary to make the parts edible. Attested Greek forms include ματιζάνιον (matizanion, eleventh-century), μελιντζάνα (melintzana, fourteenth-century), and μελιντζάνιον (melintzanion, seventeenth-century). First recorded in 1763, the word "eggplant" was originally applied to white cultivars, which look very much like hen's eggs (see image). Eggplant can be hollowed out and stuffed with meat, rice, or other fillings, and then baked. [56], The color of purple skin cultivars is due to the anthocyanin nasunin. In a dish from Maharashtra called bharli vangi, small brinjals are stuffed with ground coconut, peanuts, onions, tamarind, jaggery and masala spices, and then cooked in oil. [31] This decision was deemed controversial, as it deviated from previous practices with other genetically modified crops in India. we eat roots like carrot, we eat stems like potato, we eat leaves like cabbage etc. Perhaps the best-known Turkish eggplant dishes are imam bayıldı (vegetarian) and karnıyarık (with minced meat). It was originally domesticated from the wild nightshade species thorn or bitter apple, S. incanum,[5][6][7] probably with two independent domestications: one in South Asia, and one in East Asia. lasiocarpum.[63]. Common North American pests include the potato beetles, flea beetles, aphids, whiteflies, and spider mites. Another version of the dish, begun-pora (eggplant charred or burnt), is very popular in Bangladesh and the east Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal where the pulp of the vegetable is mixed with raw chopped shallot, green chilies, salt, fresh coriander, and mustard oil. [42][43], Chinese yúxiāng-qiézi (fish-fragrance eggplants), Korean dureup-gaji-jeon (pan-fried eggplants and angelica tree shoots), In the Philippines, eggplants are of the long and slender purple variety. Semiwild types can grow much larger, to 225 cm (7 ft 5 in), with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. Plantation of seeds for growing brinjal in pots: Brinjal plants will need a temperature of minimum 13°C or more, which will be tough to provide in the outdoor location at the time of spring. It is frequently, but not always, cooked with fat. Eggplants can also be battered before deep-frying and served with a sauce made of tahini and tamarind. Plant time. Botanically classified as a berry, the fruit contains numerous small, soft, edible seeds that taste bitter because they contain or are covered in nicotinoid alkaloids, like the related tobacco. Hearts of. Some of the lesser-known vegetables also have leaves that are edible. [45][46] Eggplant can also be grilled, skinned and eaten as a salad called ensaladang talong. On wild plants, the fruit is less than 3 cm (1 1⁄4 in) in diameter; in cultivated forms: 30 cm (12 in) or more in length are possible for long, narrow types or the large fat purple ones common to the West. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. The name eggplant is usual in North American English and Australian English. In English usage, modern names deriving from Arabic bāḏinjān include: All the aubergine-type names have the same origin, in the Dravidian languages. Eggplant is also known as aubergine, and it belongs to the Solanaceae family of the plant kingdom. S. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. aethiopicum. [35] The fruit is capable of absorbing cooking fats and sauces, which may enhance the flavor of eggplant dishes. Names for various eggplant types, such as {{lang|la|agreste, album, divaricatum, esculentum, giganteum, globosi, inerme, insanum, leucoum, luteum, multifidum, oblongo-cylindricum, ovigera, racemiflorum, racemosum, ruber, rumphii, sinuatorepandum, stenoleucum, subrepandum, tongdongense, variegatum, violaceum"", and viride, are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. "'egg-plant, n." OED Online, Oxford University Press, July 2018, Unless otherwise stated, material in this section derives from. Mint (Mentha spp.) Rhubarb. Modern descendants of this ancient Dravidian word include Malayalam vaṟutina and Tamil vaṟutuṇai. For the average adult, 400 mg of solanine would be life-threatening. Larger cultivars weighing up to a kilogram (2.2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna Rivers, while smaller ones are found elsewhere. Typically used as a vegetable in cooking, it is a berry by botanical definition. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to developing certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant, which may be because eggplant is high in histamines. Raw eggplant is 92% water, 6% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and has negligible fat (table). Case reports of itchy skin or mouth, mild headache, and stomach upset after handling or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. The stem is often spiny. As a member of the genus Solanum, it is related to the tomato and potato. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. Add them to casseroles, soups, salads and other dishes for some added protein.