Political Science tries to understand what led to such events, what might be the consequences of such events and what change it would bring. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS such as The UNITED NATIONS; THE WORLD BANK or THE AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL,  play a major role in the study of politics in the international arena. Politics is about who gets power; by what means do they get power and how do they use that power! His research focuses on metaphysics, ethics, and philosophy of biology. Here the citizens get to choose their leaders, through fair elections. These are the essential and key topics, don’t skip them and read carefully. We learnt that the basic element of politics is Power, so now we try to understand how leaders acquire this power and how they use this power! Political science, occasionally called politology, is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, associated constitutions and political behaviour. A major part of political science tries to understand how a certain leader gains its position or how a certain party fails to win! 4 pts, UN3720 Spring 2019. Two approaches used are Traditional approach, that gives a better understanding of the political system on the basis of ideas and beliefs; the Empirical approach, that focuses on the scientific basis of the political system. This organization follows the development of political theorizing during the age of Enlightenment, most famously the theory of State power developed by the French philosopher Montesquieu (1689 to 1755). Political science is the systematic study of governments, of the methods by which governments seek to control people, and of the techniques through which people try to influence government. The Authoritarian regime of CHINA, is recognized as the COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT, here, only one single party exists that is The Communist Party, no other party is allowed to contest for elections; the basic civil rights of the citizens are also bleak. The study of politics may sound vague! eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'sociologygroup_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_1',196,'0','0']));The principles and fundamental rights of democratic nations are enshrined in the CONSTITUTION. The Prince (Paperback) by Niccolò Machiavelli. Almost all good jobs require writing skills. Certain examples of the same are THE CHIPKO MOVEMENT in INDIA, concerning the environmental degradation; THE ME TOO MOVEMENT which began in the UNITED STATES and then spread out globally; The Protest against Anti-Lgbt rules all across the globe etc. Nation is a distinct group of people who share a common background including any or all of the following: geographic... 2. What is it? What is the most fitting political arrangement for a given society? The change in political trends, the growth of social and economic trends, important political developments such as the general elections of a nation; appointment of important leaders; new trade relations between two or multiple nations. Definition and Examples, Plato and Aristotle on Women: Selected Quotes, An Introduction to Plato and His Philosophical Ideas, Plato and Aristotle on the Family: Selected Quotes, The 5 Great Schools of Ancient Greek Philosophy, The Slave Boy Experiment in Plato's 'Meno', The Allegory of the Cave From the Republic of Plato, B.A., Philosophy, University of Florence, Italy. It is broken down into several sub-disciplines; political theory, comparative politics, public administration, internal relations, public law, and political methodology. However, they’re some of the core ideas that you’ll find time and again as you study how governments operated and why they operated the way they do. In this lesson, we will explore the concept of politics. The candidates campaign before the elections, on the basis of which citizens choose their leader. etc are analysed under the field of Political Science. Perhaps the most influential principle according to which modern democracies are arranged is the principle of the division of powers: legislative, executive, and judiciary. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS focus upon the interaction of nations on an international level in the international community. Peter's research focuses on the application of political science to solve pressing political and policy problems. Explained, Dialectical Materialism and Economic Determinism by Karl Marx, Safai Karamchari Andolan: What you need to know, Gandhism and Marxism: Similar Objectives, Different Principles. Politics: Definition and Source of Governmental Conflict The same form of government was in the erstwhile SOVIET UNION, where the citizens weren’t allowed to criticize or question their government and there was no accountability of the leaders. Index of Articles on Political Science: Terms and Concepts. Political scientist Harold Laswell said it best: at its most basic level, politics is the struggle of “who gets what, when, how.” This struggle may be as modest as competing interest groups fighting over control of a small municipal budget or as overwhelming as a military stand-off between international superpowers. For Plato, the functioning of a State parallels one of a human soul. Pluralism, interest groups and parties. J. S. Mill: ‘On Liberty’ by John Stuart Mill (Author), Stefan Collini (Editor) “A person may cause evil to … Its roots in the Western tradition are typically individuated in the works of Plato and Aristotle, most importantly in the Republic and the Politics respectively. If one needs to know about some little and basic things of political science. We will also identify and discuss the questions that drive the field of political science, including: How do we define the changing nature of power? What is the most fitting political arrangement for a given society? Power here in a democracy is acquired through fair elections, on the other hand, nations with Military dictatorship or Authoritarian Rule have a very bleak scope of elections, this means that people don’t have a say in who becomes the head of the state. Political theory also focuses on empirical research into the way political institutions function in practice. She describes herself as a very normal girl who desires to bring a Social Change through her words. It is often regarded as the soul of a democracy. For both Plato and Aristotle, it is only within a politically well-organized society that the individual can find true blessedness. Now, what defines, who is a democratic government or who is an authoritarian government? Political Philosophy. COMPARATIVE POLITICS studies the political notion of different countries through the mode of comparison, for instance: When the nations are ranked on the basis of the best literacy rate. In this entire topic, you will get known about the key and basic concepts of Political science. Most Western philosophers and political leaders took Plato and Aristotle’s writings as models for the formulation of their views and policies. Andrea Borghini, Ph.D., is a professor of philosophy at the University of Milan, Italy. Scope and Methods-Disc. What is Ecological Marxism (Eco-Marxism)? Civil society and state. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. (3) Imparting Knowledge about the world: Political science is said to be a science of statesmanship and leadership. Data Analysis and Statistics for Political Science Research. Under the UNIVERSAL ADULT FRANCHISE, everyone above the age of 18, regardless of their gender are allowed to vote. Plato’s Republic discusses the ways in which a State can be most appropriately run, and by so doing Plato purports to teach a lesson also about the most appropriate human to run her life. 3 pts, UN3704 Spring 2019. As against, politics aims at initiating public welfare and raising the standard of living of the citizens by implementing constructive policies. Many of the non-governmental organizations work for achieving world peace and work on issues such as Terrorism, Climate Change, Human Rights etc. Gradutes with a degree in political science commonly go on to pursue careers in business, education, law, journalism, communications, government, or politics. The Protest against Anti-Lgbt rules all across the globe etc. (for example:  if the government becomes authoritarian, these rights help the citizens to retaliate against it). Politics, Economics, and the Law. Several parties contest for elections, but only the one with majority votes comes out victorious. An important example is: Queen Elizabeth, the queen of the UNITED KINGDOM and a number of other small states. The study of politics may sound vague! Institutions of democratic government - the legislature, government and administration. She is passionate about writing and painting, besides this, her hobbies include dancing, singing and reading books. Power, Influence, Authority, Legitimacy, Political Culture, Political Socialisation, Modernisation and Political Development– Power Meaning: The concept of power is the most influential one in the whole of political science. Such as : When America passed a bill, which put a ban on Abortion, policy analyst tried to analyse how people were affected through this bill and what were the consequences of this bill. Sociology Group: Sociology and Other Social Sciences Blog, Learn Sociology and Other Social Sciences. Warren (1999, 208) de nes politics as the intersection of power and con-ict. The separation of powers is typically set in the constitution or basic law in order to achieve checks and balances within government. Politics is something that surrounds us all the time and has immense effects on our daily lives, on the same hand the Political Scientists work an extra step to analyse and predict important trends in the realms of politics. As an introductory course, POLSC101 will focus on the basic principles of political science by combining a historical study of the discipline's greatest thinkers with an analysis of contemporary issues. Political science programs offer insight into how leaders acquire and maintain power, how social movements start and gain momentum and how governments and … Basic concepts and theoretical perspectives. Once a branch of philosophy, political science nowadays is typically considered a social science. Political science studies governments in all their forms and aspects, both theoretical and practical. and suitable measures are taken to prevent discrimination. Analogous considerations can be made with respect to the relationship between politics and the law. Types of political regimes. NEPAL was a monarchy until 2006, after which it transitioned to democracy. It focuses on human nature and the moral purposes of political association. Political Science is the study of politics and the political phenomenon. This matter is prepared to increase your basic knowledge regarding political science. And then it teaches us how to sustain, improve, and protect whatever it is that has been gained. To understand better about what this field is all about, let’s move further and focus upon the important aspects of the field. Political Science is the study of power relationships - - competing interests. A normal individual might have questions like: What would they do with analysing the decisions of a government? These and related questions have been at the hearth of the reflection on political philosophy. The formation of the association’s over the previous decades like ASEAN (Association of South Eastern Asian Nations); NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) etc. Most of our courses have assignments that develop your skills in writing. Understanding Politics: Ideas, Institutions, and Issues. are studied here. Therefore, in order to have a clear understanding of politics, related concepts such as government, state, sovereignty, legitimacy, power, influence, authority, democracy, … Political science, the systematic study of governance by the application of empirical and generally scientific methods of analysis. Power is the central point around which every activity revolvers. Political Science Branches of Political Science. ; nations agglomerate together and form such associations for either trade relations; financial aids; for military help or just diplomatic relations. Every country is run by a different pattern of the political system such as the DEMOCRACY of INDIA; the COMMUNIST REGIME of CHINA, which can be called as a DICTATORSHIP and the MONARCHY of BHUTAN. The list of contemporary politicians who claimed to have drawn inspiration from Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, or Hobbes is virtually endless. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. An election commission is set up with the election commissioner as the head, to ensure that the elections aren’t rigged. Elections and electoral systems. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, What Is the Common Good in Political Science? The subject of Political Science accommodates a number of sub-fields: POLITICAL THEORY explains the idea of politics in a philosophical manner. Nations with democracy uphold free and fair elections to elect candidates. Is there a best form of government towards which every human society should tend and, if there is, what is it? Ch 1: Basic Terms and Concepts of Political Science 1. Instead, previous work should guide de nitions. What is political science? JAPAN; BRUNEI and BHUTAN are other countries with a monarch system. Why study political science? Humans are "political animals.". Politial science deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts and political behavior. Secondly, when nations come together and discuss important issues at organizations like the UNITED NATIONS. Nations like AUSTRALIA; BRAZIL and THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA follow a FEDERAL FORM OF GOVERNMENT where power is divided between two entities: the federal or the national government and the state government, both of these shares balanced power to maintain the status quo. Well, this article tries to analyse these questions and focus on the basic structure of political science. A few examples of strong democratic nations include THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA; CANADA; INDIA and. Such forms of government are described as Authoritarian governments or a Dictatorship. Power can take many forms, from brute force to articulate persuasion. In... 2. Rights such as Freedom of speech and expression, where citizens can openly express their ideas and can even criticize the government, they can hold up demonstrations and protests for their demands to be heard; Equality wherein everyone is treated in the same manner irrespective of their religion, race, gender, colour etc. Political Science is the study of politics and the political phenomenon. PUBLIC POLICY relates to the study of policies and it’s impact on the people. DOMESTIC POLITICS deals with the study of politics in the local; regional; state or national level, such as when a state holds elections or when a country elects its head. Power is the basic focus of study in Political Science. Classic and modern understanding of politics. Sandhya is an undergraduate student, currently pursuing Political Science. According to the American Political Science Association, political science 'is t… This is a novel aspect and one of the recent political trend. As traditionally defined and studied, political science examines the state and its organs and institutions. What is Political Science? (shelved 338 times as political-science) avg rating … Political Science deals with theory and practice of Politics, as well as the analysis of our political systems, behavior and culture. Studying political science develops the skill of reaching conclusions and making decisions by synthesizing different sets of data. Through this, one person counts one vote. The constitution, in reality, is just a book about rights and rules but in morality, it has greater implications. Most accredited universities indeed have separate schools, departments, and research centers devoted to the study of the central themes within political science. It is a science that attempts to connect the "micro" level of individual lives and actions with the "macro" level of collective circumstances and consequences. Among the most famous examples are the British empiricist Thomas Hobbes (1588 to 1679) and the Florentine humanist Niccolò Machiavelli (1469 to 1527). The basic objective of political science is to know various political patterns and to provide a substructure which expresses reality. Independent Reading and Research II. The soul has three parts: rational, spiritual, and appetitive; so the State has three parts: the ruling class, corresponding to the rational part of the soul; the auxiliaries, corresponding to the spiritual part; and the productive class, corresponding to the appetitive part. What are the major subdisciplines within the broad discipline of political science? Politics is the activity by which Aristotle emphasized even more than Plato the dependence between the individual and the State: it is in our biological constitution to engage in social living and only within a well-run society we can fully realize ourselves as human. Importantly, these aren’t all the concepts that you’ll encounter in political science. Political Science was formally established at MIT in 1955 as part of the Department of Economics and Social Science. Filed Under: Civil Services, Political science. Political science seeks to describe and understand political phenomena, and to explore their ethical and normative dimensions. To clarify these concepts, political theorists draw on enduring political writings from ancient Greece to the present and on various writings by moral philosophers. The history of the discipline is virtually as long as that of humanity. Well, DEMOCRACY comes with a bonus of fundamental rights for its citizens. This de nition is useful in that it provides two key monikers to identify the political. The typical model has three branches, and is referred to as the trias politica. 0 pts, UN3722 Spring 2019. Where the former keeps a check upon how nations behave in the international community and try to resolve conflicts in times of crisis; the latter grants loan to nations and the last one is the biggest human right’s organization. Such as when nations form Diplomatic or Trade relations. Any degree in political science will typically require a balance of courses related to those subjects, but the success that political science has enjoyed in recent history of higher learning is also due to its interdisciplinary character. Peter is a political scientist who works at one of several think tanks in Washington, D.C. A think tank is an organization that engages in research to solve particular problems, such as economic, political, technological, defense, and social problems. The lineage of political science is su ciently devel-oped so as to make o ering another original de - nition an unwarranted exercise. These aspirations are not just limited to their personal life or political domain but also about the social; economic and environmental domains. The field of Political Science might appear like everyone’s cup of tea but in reality, it’s diverse nature makes it a bit complex. Through her writings, she wishes to work for the betterment of the society. Basic Concepts in Politics 1. Most simply, it teaches you how to get what you want - - be it political/legal, social, economic, historical, or even in a career. Political Science lays a lot of emphasis on understanding what are the aspirations of people and what are their demands or expectations from their governments. Part of understanding political science involves understanding the basic concepts that underlie the field. If we add that we live in a globalized world, it becomes evident that political science necessarily requires a global perspective and the capacity to compare political, economical, and legal systems around the world. The second essential concept is how International organizations other than the national government’s (non-governmental actors) play an important role in political science. Understanding Politics: Ideas, Institutions, … system input -----> output Fields of Specialization Political Theory International Relation Comparative Politics & Government Public Administration Political Science also relate with other social sciences, because it is complex. Political scientists rely on several important concepts: Power: The ability to get others to do what you want. How would they form conclusions from a simple political incident? Politics has always been inextricably linked to economics: when new governments and policies are instituted, new economic arrangements are directly involved or ensue shortly after. People often use protests; rallies and demonstrations as a means to pressurize the government and try to make the government fulfil their demands. Political theory is concerned mainly with the foundations of political community and institutions. The study of political science, hence, requires an understanding of the basic principles of economics. Because political science is a discipline that uses different approaches, our courses train you in a number of different critical skills that will help you succeed in almost any career. A constitution is written in a framework that it accommodates the interests of all groups, including the protection of minority communities and gives the citizens rights to protect them from the exploitation of the government. The principles and norms established In the scholars in political science are of immense utility and value to the executives, legislators and judges. With the passage of time, as people are becoming more and more aware of the analysis of right and wrong of any political situation, they tend to work to bring a positive change in the society. THE ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, ANALYSING THE GROWTH OF POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS. Political scientists study such struggles, both small and large, in an effort to develop general principles or theories about the way the world of politics works. But sometimes, when the decisions of the government contradict the aspirations and interests of the people, it often leads to Movements. The first essential concept is the FORM OF GOVERNMENT. In the election period, the Aspirations of people really matter. State denotes the existence of a viable, sovereign government exercising authority and power in the … Power is the basic focus of study in Political Science. Political science has a wide array of branches. Some are highly theoretical, including Political Philosophy, Political Economy, or the History of Government; others have a mixed character, such as Human Rights, Comparative Politics, Public Administration, Political Communication, and Conflict Processes; finally, some branches actively engage with the practice of political science, such as Community Based Learning, Urban Policy, and Presidents and Executive Politics. Additionally, it helps the individual to understand and become involved in national and international politics in a … Political science has a wide array of branches. This new trend proved to be a game-changer in world politics. For example The ideas of political thinkers such as John Locke; Thomas Hobbes or Aristotle. A normal individual might have questions like: What would they do with analysing the decisions of a government? On the other hand, in a MONARCHY power is shared in a hierarchal setting of a royal family. The great Greek philosopher Aristotle once called political science the master science. Scope and Methods. The concepts like equality; liberty; justice etc. Atlas » Learn more about the world with our collection of regional and country maps. What principles should inspire a political leader? The same scenario is in a Monarchy, which has a certain kind of hierarchal ascendancy, thus, people again do not have a say in who becomes their leader. Political science and its subject. Such organizations are very important to analyse the political decisions of the nations in terms of world politics. Government: The organization of power within a society, specifically how power is divided and used. It tries to encapsulate the public opinion. According to the Ancient Greek perspective, the quest for the most appropriate structure of the State is the ultimate philosophical goal.