Various human uses have been reported in the literature, including an alcoholic drink, a famine food from the fruit and young stems, and dried leaves have been used in Florida as a tobacco substitute. A number of pests and diseases have been reported in the native range. by Theophrastus (Bowman 1917). Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. Ag. R. mangle trees are not tolerant of fire, and have poor coppicing ability (Duke and Allen, 2006). Effects of herbicides on seedlings of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L. BioScience, 23:361-364. Flower production in R. mangle is continuous throughout the year in equatorial regions, with a peak in flower production during the wet season (Mehlig, 2006), and during early spring and summer in more temperate regions (Gill and Tomlinson, 1971). In: Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: Proceedings of the International Conference on eradication of island invasives [ed. Elster C; Perdomo L; Schnetter ML, 1999. Ellison AM; Farnsworth EJ, 1997. Cattle will eat the leaves if lime is added to raise the pH, and leaves could serve as a valuable source of feed but this potential has yet to be realized (Duke and Allen, 2006). Murray MR; Zisman SA; Furley PA; Munro DM; Gibson J; Ratter J; Bridgewater S; Minty CD; Place CJ, 2003. These are fringe, riverine, overwash, basin and supra-tidal flats, the differences between these being mainly in elevation and the effects this has on changes in the water-level and proximity to the ocean. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Mean temperature ranges for optimal growth of R. mangle are 21.6°C to 25.6°C (Duke, 1983) and cold temperatures limit the native range to below the latitudes of 28°N and 28°S (Hill, 2001). Stilt roots arises from the trunk or branches of the mangrove and grows toward the soil where the stilt root will develop an underground root system. Hill (2001) reports that R. mangle propagules in Florida are consumed directly by the spotted mangrove crab (Goniopsis cruentata), the mangrove land crab (Ucides cordatus), the coffee bean snail (Melampus coffea) and the ladder horn snail (Cerithidea scalariformis), and leaves are eaten by the mangrove crab (Aratus pisonii), the spotted mangrove crab (G. cruentata), the blue land crab (Cardisoma guanhumi), and various insects. Timyan J, 1996. Description Members of the genus Rhizophora are very similar to each other in morphology. Batis maritima is another common associate. (1991) note R. mangle as a weed in Nicaragua and the USA, but with no information on impacts. July, 2013. Farnsworth EJ; Ellison AM, 1996. m−2 for a Rhizophora mangle L. (Rhizophoraceae) dominated forest in North Brazil [32], and a maximal carapace width of 10 cm was recorded [33]. Technical Report 121. The propagules eventually fall from the parent plant, but if submerged at the time, they can float for more than a year in seawater until they settle on suitable strata (Hill, 2001). Stilt roots of red mangrove, Floreana Island, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Siple MC; Donahue MJ, 2013. Kromosomo, 35/36:1111-1116. However, Farnsworth and Ellison (1996) found that R. mangle shows both light demanding and shade tolerant properties, observing changes in the mode and magnitude of its adaptability to light throughout its growth stages. Mangrove Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. Estuaries and Coasts, 29(6):972-978. Influences of salinity and shade on seedling photosynthesis and growth of two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and Bruguiera sexangula, introduced to Hawaii. Caribbean Forester, 9(4):299-320. R. mangle seedlings cannot tolerate dry conditions during establishment, so communities often develop around areas where water is not limited, at least during certain periods (Elster et al., 1999). Cox EF; Allen JA, 1999. Online Database. In its native range, Holm et al. MacKenzie RA; Kryss CL, 2013. Title Tropical Timbers of the World. Stilt mangroves are rambling to columnar trees with distinct aboveground prop roots. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 153(3, I):394-399. R. mangle can survive under permanent submersion, resulting from flooding, due to its unique anatomy and physiology (Hill, 2001). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 448:128-135. Bark gray or gray-brown, smooth and thin on small trunks, becoming furrowed and thick; inner bark reddish or pinkish. R. mangle commonly forms dense monospecific stands in its native range, or is associated with the black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) and the white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) amongst other species. Leaves opposite or Aquatic Botany, 84(2):158-164., Méndez Linares AP; López-Portillo J; Hernández-Santana JR; Ortiz Pérez MA; Oropeza Orozco O, 2007. Simulated sea level change alters anatomy, physiology, growth, and reproduction of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.). Duke and Allen (2006) include a map and much detail regarding the taxonomy of this species group. As propagules were found to float for 8-12 months and still remain viable, R. mangle is likely to be effective at inter-island dispersal, and should be capable of at least occasionally dispersing across the relatively short distances between most of the main Hawaiian Islands (Allen and Krauss, 2006). Plant extracts have also proved effective against the pest Cylasformicarius (Williams, 1999). Flower production is not dependent on day-length, and embryo development can continue albeit reduced in colder climates and periods (Mehlig, 2006). USDA-ARS, 2015), is considered by Duke and Allen (2006) and others as a hybrid between R. mangle and R. racemosa. Find premium, high-resolution stock photography at Getty Images. Allen JA, 2002. However, the long-term impact of mangrove removal on Hawaiian stilt populations is still not clear (Rauzon and Drigot, 2002). R. mangle is a tropical and subtropical American species, native to a wide area on both eastern and western coasts: on the Pacific, from Baja California, Mexico, to northern Peru, and on the east, from North Carolina to Florida (USDA-NRCS, 2015) and around the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, and along northern South America to the north east of Brazil (USDA-ARS, 2015). January, 2010. It is always a coastal species, mainly inhabiting tidal flats and estuarine areas, and is noted by Hill (2001) to be found in five different topographical communities in subtropical to tropical coastal regions. The black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) and the white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) are able to take up seawater through their roots, but they excrete excess salt through pores, or salt glands, located on the surface of leaves. The dispersal and establishment of Red Mangrove Rhizophora in Florida. Gainesville, Florida, USA: Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Stilt roots of a fully grown Rhizophora mangle can be 5 meters long and extend in a radius of approximately 10 meters around the trunk., Duke NC, Allen JA, 2006. The mangrove communities in the Arroyo Seco deltaic fan, Jalisco, Mexico, and their relation with the geomorphic and physical-geographic zonation. Rauzon and Drigot (2003) report the results of 20 years of work using thousands of volunteer hours and more than US$2.5 million of contracted labour to remove 8 hectares of R. mangle in a fishpond complex in Hawaii, using hand tools, chainsaws and heavy equipment. July, 2013. Aquatic Botany, 75(3):199-215.!&_cdi=4973&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=acaeb416508d42611104d42748faa71c. Duke JA, 1983. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Habitat restoration and improvement (pathway cause),,,,,, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
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