Vierh. Curiously, experiments at the then University of Durban-Westville (G.S. Avicennia marina Forssk. This may be whitish, a characteristic described in the common name. & Pammenter, N.W. The habit is a gnarled arrangement of multiple branches. Avicennia marina var. Flora Zeylanica. Login to add your Comment Name . Van Rheede tot Drakenstein, H. 1678--1693. The leaves are thick, 5 to 8 cm (2.0 to 3.1 in) long, a bright, glossy green on the upper surface, and silvery-white, or grey, with very small matted hairs on the surface below. Bauhin, C. 1623. Linnaeus, C. 1754. Avicennia marina f. (2011); Gomes e Sousa (1967) gives nhamesso (Xironga) and mussu (Quimuane) for Mozambique. Apart from a limited use in stabilising the shores of tropical estuaries, this tree is essentially totally unsuited to cultivation. Common names: white mangrove (Eng. A number of botanists have proposed division of the species, but currently three subspecies are recognised: Data related to Avicennia marina at Wikispecies As with other Avicennia species, it has a… Gillett, J.B. & McDonald, P.G. As in other widespread mangrove genera, there are different species with non-overlapping distributions in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific ocean basins. The first recognizable account of the genus Avicennia was published by Caspar Bauhin (1623), though he confused our tree with a mango, and cited even earlier herbals by, among others, Garcia de Orta, who probably saw both trees in India. Avicennia has a wide geographical distribution, with members found in intertidal estuaries along many of the world’s tropical and warm temperate coasts. australasica (Walp.) Read on and find out. marina. The Australasian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) is an online resource that provides immediate access to the wealth of plant specimen information held by Australian herbaria. ); mangal, towozi, txomahati (Xironga); isikhungathi (isiXhosa, isiZulu) - these from Van Wyk et al. Common name: Grey Mangrove. & Manyama, P.A. Vierh. The genus Avicennia is named after one of the greatest luminaries of mediaeval Islamic science, the Persian physician, naturalist, philosopher and mathematician Abu Ali Husain Ibn Abd Allah (Abu Ali Alhosain Ibn Sina, 980-1037 AD). Salvius, Stockholm. Vierh. Scientific Name Common Name Photos; AVMA3: Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Wildlife Society of South Africa, Durban. Pinax Theatri Botanici. The specific epithet marina refers to the habitat of the white mangrove, at the edge of the sea. It has been reported to tolerate extreme weather conditions, high winds, and various pests and diseases. Soil requirements for this tree are unknown, but probably include anaerobic mud. Avicennia lanata Ridl. (2009) list the white mangrove as being of Least Concern, which is reasonable, given its immense range and abundance where it occurs. Common names: white mangrove (Eng. alba (BI.) Avicennia officinalis Auct. They thus sailed past all the Avicennia localities in the Atlantic without stopping, and only made landfall in the Indian Ocean. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Pollinators and insect interactions are unknown, but Palmer & Pitman (1973) note that the tree provides nesting sites for several coastal bird species. Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. Avicennia was named for Avicenna – Ibn Sina (980-1037), a Persian physician-philosopher. comm.) Another variety, Avicennia marina var. It is one of the few mangroves found in the arid regions of the coastal Arabian Peninsula, mainly in sabkha environments in the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Oman, as well as in similar environments on both side of the Red Sea (in Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Eritrea, and Sudan), and Qatar and southern Iran along the Persian Gulf coast. Genera Plantarum edn 5. Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. australasica (Walp. Raimondo et al. Berjak, P., Campbell, G.K., Huckett, B.I. Before experimenting, please be aware that every swamp where this tree grows naturally in South Africa is protected and you will need a permit to collect seed in this country, or an import permit and phytosanitary certificates to bring seed in from elsewhere in its range. California county polygons can … 2008. & Ngoc Nam, V. (2010). The flowers range from white to a golden yellow colour, are less than 1 cm across, and occur in clusters of three to five. Vierh. With that background it is hardly surprising that I have never seen nor heard of anyone trying to grow the white mangrove in a garden. White mangrove grows on the inland side of tropical and subtropical coastal swamps, along the east coast of Africa from about East London to Sudan (Red Sea coast), on the coasts of Arabia, India, northern Australia and on every island in the Indian Ocean. Bark pale yellowish green, with raised dots, flaking. Small to medium-sized tree (3-11 m), main trunk straight, up to 76 cm in diameter, with much branched, rounded crown. It has smooth light-grey bark made up of thin, stiff, brittle flakes. Nomenclature and Classification > Taxon Record Name > Scientific Name. marina. This also explains the lack of overlap between the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific ranges of the genus. Species recognized by EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1 and EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1. 1967. acutissima Stapf ex Mold. It is distributed along Africa's east coast, south-west, south and south-east Asia, and Australia. Dictionary of names for southern African trees. Avicennia marina var. Avicennia marina subsp. The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Avicennia marina . Vierh. Pages in category "Avicennia marina" This category contains only the following page. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Not registered yet? Northern Aborigines learned to harvest this starchy food by leaching out distasteful tannins and bitter substances which are the plant's chemical defence. Gomes e Sousa, A. Coates Palgrave, M. 2002. Sceura marina Forssk. 14 plant name records match your search criteria Avicennia marina.The results are below. Grey Mangrove, White Mangrove. Their last landfall in the Atlantic was Madeira, the Azores or the Canaries, from where they went almost to Brazil (but not landing anywhere) before turning south-eastwards and rounding the Cape. In Australia, it extends much farther south than other mangroves, occurring in every mainland state. Geographic subdivisions for Avicennia marina var. 1977. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Grey mangroves grow as a shrub or tree to a height of 3 to 10 m (9.8 to 32.8 ft), or up to 14 m in tropical regions. A few decades later the white mangrove was well illustrated in Van Rheede's (1678-1693) Hortus Malabaricus, and this work is the source of the generic name used by Linnaeus (1747, 1754). australasica is the world's southernmost mangrove, being reported from the south-eastern tip of Australia near Melbourne, and from New Zealand near Auckland. Avicennia marina Name Synonyms Avicennia alba var. This can travel far and wide propelled by wind and ocean currents, and so it is to be expected that trees are found wherever a suitable habitat exists. The results can also be downloaded as a CSV file (Unicode UTF-8 encoding).. See "Status", "Confidence level", "Source" for definitions. Palmer, E. & Pitman, N. 1973. Field guide to trees of southern Africa. marina : AVMAR: Avicennia marina (Forssk.) arabica Walp. Avicennia marina ssp. Jacana, Johannesburg. Glen, H.F. 2004. latifolia Moldenke Avicennia balanophora Stapf & Moldenke ex Moldenke Avicennia mindanaense Elmer Avicennia sphaerocarpa Stapf Avicennia sphaerocarpa Stapf ex Ridl. Salvius, Stockholm. Vierh._PROTA", "FAO Corporate Document Repository_Sudan", "A Systematic Revision of the Mangrove Genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in Australasia", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avicennia_marina&oldid=977801869, Articles with dead external links from May 2016, Use Australian English from November 2017, All Wikipedia articles written in Australian English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 September 2020, at 02:22. Avicennia marina subsp.  The most inland occurrence of mangroves in Australia is a stand of grey mangroves in the Mandora Marsh, some 60 km from the coast. J.Everett APNI* . Avicennia germinans (L.) L. — Symbol AVGE Common Name black mangrove Botanical Family Verbenaceae … Scientific plant list. Avicennia — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda ? var. )Moldenke APNI* Avicennia marina var. Moistened seeds could be heaped into stone ovens, sealed with bark, baked for two hours then soaked in a pool dug in sand before eating. Vierh. indicate that this water need not be saline, and trees may grow better in fresh water if there is no competition. Naidoo, Gonasageran (2016). This may be whitish, a characteristic described in the common name. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) The name gymnorhiza comes from two Greek words "gymno" naked and "rhiza" root, naked root which refers to the exposed knee roots of Bruguiera gymnorhiza emerging from the ground. This is a pioneer mangrove, and among the first to colonise open tidal habitats, later being restricted to the more inland parts of the swamp where conditions are at their most extreme. Synonyms . Avicennia alba Bl. australasica (Walp. APNI* Description: Small tree or shrub up to 9 m high, branches, inflorescences and lower surface of leaves greyish or silvery; pneumatophores numerous and projecting from the shallow lateral roots. Avicennia marina, commonly known as grey mangrove or white mangrove, is a species of mangrove tree classified in the plant family Acanthaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae). Avicennia tomentosa arabica Walp. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Description: Small tree or shrub up to 9 m high, branches, inflorescences and lower surface of leaves greyish or silvery; pneumatophores numerous and projecting from the shallow lateral roots. AVH is a collaborative project of the state, Commonwealth and territory herbaria, developed under the auspices of the Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH), representing the major Australian collections. กิ่งอ่อนมักเป็นสี่เหลี่ยม ใบเรียงตรงข้าม รูปรีหรือรูปไข่ ยาว 2–7 ซม. Distribution. Avicennia bicolor Standl. Bakh. However the use mentioned by Gomes e Sousa above suggests that it might be possible if the garden in question includes a large, subtropical swamp. Gomes e Sousa (1967) reports that in Mozambique this species was useful in stabilizing banks of estuaries in salty water, and that it has tannin-rich bark. Results. The Kiswahili name Uchu (coastal Kenyan) and Mtswi (Giriyama) are … Common names var. Mabberley, D.J. H.F. GlenKwazulu-Natal HerbariumJune 2011, SA Distribution: Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Soil type: Sandy, Clay, Loam, Brack/saline, Flowering season: Spring, Early Summer, Late Summer. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. ); witseebasboom (Afr. ไม้พุ่มหรือไม้ต้น สูงได้ถึง 20 ม. APNI*. The increase of Avicennia is however a symptom of a more serious issue, that is the impact of increased sedimentation rates within harbours whose catchments have been seriously degraded and/or deforested. Scientific Name: Avicennia marina Arabic Name: Qurm قرم IUCN Red List Endangered Status: Least Concern The grey mangrove (Avicennia marina) is named after Avicenna or Ibn Sina (AD 980-1037), one of the most significant Islamic philosopher-scientists.It is a mangrove tree which can thrive in both high salinity and freshwater habitats.. Avicennia marina subsp. Avicennia, also called black mangrove, genus comprising at least eight species of trees or shrubs in the family Acanthaceae. Description: Of all the species in nature, the mangrove is among the most fascinating and beneficial to humanity.This hardy tree acts as a natural windbreak, protecting us against tidal surges and purifying the surrounding water. Balkema, Cape Town.Raimondo, D., Von Staden, L. Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. The bark has been used for tanning and for the preparation of a brown dye. ; seed developing on the tree, fruit usually splitting after falling; water-dispersed. Vierh. These allow the plant to absorb oxygen, which is deficient in its habitat. Impensis Joannis Regis, Basel. It is distributed along Africa's east coast, south-west, south and south-east Asia, and Australia. The leaves are thick, 5 to 8 cm (2.0 to 3.1 in) long, a bright, glossy green on the upper surface, and silvery-white, or grey, with very small matted hairs on the surface below. Avicennia flourishes where silt and mud has accumulated and in some harbours, especially those abutting cities it has become a problem species. The leaves are thick, five to eight centimetres long, a bright, glossy green on the upper surface, and silvery-white, or … Keith Coates Palgrave's Trees of southern Africa. In the mangroves of southern Africa. Another mangrove system is found even further south (500 km) at Bunbury. That the earliest published reference should be to an Indian Ocean species and not to an Atlantic one is not remarkable when one considers the route that the early Portuguese and Dutch traders used between Europe and India. Bakh. http://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T178828A7619457.en, World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "Avicennia marina (Forssk.) – gray mangrove : References Expert(s): Expert: Notes: ... in connection with an update for USDA PLANTS (2007-2010) Reference for: Avicennia : Source: NODC Taxonomic Code, database (version 8.0) Acquired: 1996 : Notes: Reference for: Avicennia ... Common Name: Scientific Name The fruit contains large cotyledons that surround the new stem of a seedling. A bird in Muthupet.JPG 2,288 × 1,712; 793 KB. marina autonym. In South Australia along the Barker Inlet and Port River in Gulf St Vincent, as well as in sheltered bays in Spencer Gulf and the west coast of Eyre Peninsula, A. marina forests form hatcheries for much of the state's fish and shellfish commercial and recreational fisheries. australasica is a many-branched woody shrub or small tree favouring tidal flats of harbours and estuaries.It is easily recognized by its bushy growth with opposite fleshy leaves and aerial roots (pneumatophores) which rise vertically from the mud. Vierh. Forst.) The Plant List includes 31 scientific plant names of species rank for the genus Avicennia.Of these 8 are accepted species names. It is a pioneer in muddy soil conditions with a pH value of 6.5 to 8.0, but is intolerant of shade. Synonyms: Avicennia marina var. 1775. Family: Avicenniaceae. This produces a large, fleshy seed, often germinating on the tree and falling as a seedling. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) It occurs in New Zealand between 34 and 38 degrees south; its Māori name is mānawa. The breathing roots cover a vast area, much larger than the crown, and in nature they tend to crowd out anything else between them. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) 137. Johannes van Someren, Amsterdam. Duke, N.C. 1991. Forst.) 2. (2011); Gomes e Sousa (1967) gives nhamesso (Xironga) and mussu (Quimuane) for Mozambique. – gray mangrove. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. resinifera (G. – gray mangrove. Boon, R. 2010. Van Wyk, A.E. Van Wyk, A.E., Van den Berg, E., Coates Palgrave, M. & Jordaan, M. 2011. Struik, Cape Town. Its distribution is disjunct in Western Australia; the population of the Abrolhos Islands is 300 km (190 mi) further south than the nearest population of Shark Bay. "The mangroves of South Africa: An ecophysiological review". National Plant Data Center, NRCS, USDA. Statistics. Secura marina Forssk., Fl. Fruit a green, oval, two-valved capsule 20-25 mm diam. Avicennia tomentosa var. As with other mangroves, it occurs in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas. Vierh. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. australasica: SCo (Mission Bay, San Diego Co.) MAP CONTROLS 1. Leaves opposite, 30-100 x 12-40 mm, thick, leathery, shiny olive green above, with dense grey hairs beneath, margin entire with sharply or bluntly pointed tip, base narrowing, petiole short (5 mm long). Avicennia marina var. Briza Academic, Pretoria. Family Acanthaceae. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) And finally, being a mangrove this tree needs prodigious amounts of water. Reference taxon from World Plants in Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Around Kosi Bay, the leafy branches provide closures for fish traps, and further north in East Africa the hard, yellow-brown wood is used for making the ribs of dhows (traditional Arab sailing vessel). Vierh. Flora & Fauna Publications Trust, Durban. Avicennia marina; Media in category "Avicennia marina" The following 86 files are in this category, out of 86 total. This may be whitish, a characteristic described in the common name. Australian Systematic Botany 4: 299-324. The species can tolerate high salinity by excreting salts through its leaves.. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Avicennia elliptica var. Vierh. Instituto de Investigação Agronômica de Moçambique, Lourenço Marques. Click here to register. )J.Everett 1994. pronounced: av-ih-SEN-ee-uh mar-EE-nuh subspecies aw-strah-LAY-see-kuh (Acanthaceae — the black-eyed Susan family) common name: grey mangrove. alba (Blume) Bakh. Pooley's Trees of eastern South Africa. Mabberley's Plant-book, edn 3. Later generations of Western academics Latinized his name as 'Avicenna'. It has smooth light-grey bark made up of thin, stiff, brittle flakes. Avicennia marina var. Strelitzia 25. Avicennia bicolor. This may be whitish, a characteristic described in the common name. traditional use. Preferred Names. Avicennia marina (Forssk.)  The grey mangrove can experience stunted growth in water conditions that are too saline, but thrive to their full height in waters where both salt and fresh water are present. It is a common and often dominant constituent of mangrove swamps (usually the inland fringes of mangrove associations), and is also a pioneer of new mud banks; sea level. Extensive underground root system with 'pencil roots' (pneumatophores or breathing roots) up to 90 mm long, sticking up out of the mud in dense stands spreading out from tree. & Van Wyk, P. 1997. Bruguiera gymnorhiza has numerous names in English, the most common one is porbably Large-Leafed Orange Mangrove followed by Oriental Mangrove. Government Printer, Nairobi. Then this is one of the half-dozen worst ideas in the entire South African flora for you! Trees of southern Africa. Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. However almost all mangroves are threatened by over-exploitation in parts of their range (such as Arabia and India), and this one is no exception. A numbered check-list of trees shrubs and noteworthy lianes indigenous to Kenya. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. ssp. Media related to Avicennia marina at Wikimedia Commons. Homonyms Avicennia marina Vierh. Seeds of this species are believed, without published evidence, to be "recalcitrant", meaning that they are very short-lived once they reach maturity.The seeds germinate in the fruit while still on the tree.  The species is also found in Somalia.. , Grey mangroves grow as a shrub or tree to a height of 3 to 10 m (9.8 to 32.8 ft), or up to 14 m in tropical regions. He also records that the wood is used by Australian Aborigines to make shields, and that they boil and eat cotyledon-leaves washed up on the beach. Scientific Names. marina: AVMAM: Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Aeg.-Arab. resinifera (G.Forst.)Bakh. Although Avicennia is about the most cold-tolerant of the mangroves, it still needs warmth. Avicennia — Blühender Zweig der Schwarzen Mangrove (Avicennia germinans) Systematik Asteriden Euasterid … Deutsch Wikipedia. Subordinate Taxa. – gray mangrove. As with other mangroves, it occurs in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas. gray mangrove: AVMAM2: Avicennia marina (Forssk.) 1970. ... Avicennia marina (Forssk.) As with all proper mangroves, the seeds germinate on the tree, and what is dropped and dispersed is actually a seedling. As with other Avicennia species, it has aerial roots (pneumatophores); these grow to a height of about 20 cm (5 in), and a diameter of 1 cm. gray mangrove http://plants.usda.gov. I have never seen a diseased tree of this species. Vierh. Species name: Mangroves Scientific name: Avicennia marina Locally known as: Gurm. ); mangal, towozi, txomahati (Xironga); isikhungathi (isiXhosa, isiZulu) - these from Van Wyk et al. Grey mangrove is a highly variable tree, with a number of ecotypes, and in forms closely resembling other species. Mabberley (2008) reports that the timber, like that of many mangroves, is resistant to termites. Avicennia marina var. Their fleshy, leathery leaves are opposite and entire and feature salt-exuding glands on the upper and lower surfaces. var. Unusually among mangroves, these trees can exude excess salt through their leaves, and it is not uncommon to find salt crystals adhering to the leaves. Naidoo, pers. Common name. Dendrologia de Moçambique. Bakh. The Plant List includes a further 34 scientific plant names of infraspecific rank for the genus Avicennia.We do not intend The Plant List to be complete for names of infraspecific rank. (2009). ... Avicennia tonduzii Mold. Linnaeus, C. 1747. Common Names: Afiafy (Malgache-Betsimisaraka & Tanosy, Madagascar, Central and southeast) SAPPI What's in a Name? Avicennia marina, commonly known as grey mangrove or white mangrove, is a species of mangrove tree classified in the plant family Acanthaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae). Alice Campbell and Peter Gasson, Royal Botanic Gardens - Kew Flowers creamy yellow, small, in dense round heads in leaf axils or terminally, on short, square stalks, sweetly scented. A systematic revision of the mangrove genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in Australasia. It is a characteristic species of the Southern Africa mangroves ecoregion, and is one of three species present in Africa's southernmost mangroves, in the estuary of South Africa's Nahoon River at 32°56′S. This colonisation of southerly climes may have occurred relatively recently, perhaps several thousand years ago, when they were transferred by the Leeuwin Current. However, other early explorers sailed to the Caribbean, and A. germinans (L.) L. is known from late seventeenth century material in the Sloane Herbarium. resinifera (G. Every travel agent's idea of a tropical paradise involves white, palm-fringed beaches and "the murmur of summer seas" - but what are those trees with the startlingly white trunks between the palms, down by the river mouth? The Kiswahili name Uchu (coastal Kenyan) and Mtswi (Giriyama) are recorded on herbarium specimens, as are many other vernacular names within its vast range. The genus Avicennia includes between 4 and 14 species, depending on the limits one adopts for a species. martii Mold. Avicennia marina, commonly known as grey mangrove or white mangrove, is a species of mangrove tree classified in the plant family Acanthaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae).As with other mangroves, it occurs in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas. Red List of South African Plants 2009. Struik, Cape Town. The habit is a gnarled arrangement of multiple branches. The leaves are thick, five to eight centimetres long, a bright, glossy green on the upper surface, and silvery-white, or … These roots also anchor the plant during the frequent inundation of seawater in the soft substrate of tidal systems.